By the end of this course student should be able to: describe the term Public Health, describe theoretical framework and practice of Public Health; identify managerial and policy issues and techniques for decision-making in health care; demonstrate knowledge and understanding of a diverse range of global and national health policies, including current and emerging trends and also of disciplines relevant to the study of health policy, planning and financing (epidemiology, health economic and other social sciences); apply his knowledge and skills using a multidisciplinary approach to formulate and evaluate health policies and plans.
1. What is meant by "health care"? Lay care: ranges and extent of activities, lay carers, attitudes of formal carers. Inputs to formal health care: staff, facilities, finance. Variations in inputs. Problems of definition. Historical framework for public health and health policy. Cultural conceptions and health beliefs, health as a value.
2. What is meant by "disease"? Difference between objective and subjective explanations of disease. What is meant by "a disease"? How do disease categories arise? Why do such categories change over time? History of medicine: bedside, hospital and laboratory medicine. Clinical approaches to the study of health and disease: case study and case series.
3. What is health policy? Theoretical approaches to policy making. Political system and public participation. Exogenous factors affecting policy. How far does research influence policy? Implementation of public health policy. United Nations health related organisations. European Health for All strategy. Reforms of health systems. Issues in the Czech Public Health Medicine.
4. The role of evaluation in therapeutic and prophylactic decision making. Critical assessment and interpretation of scientific data. Evidence based medicine. Meta-analysis. The advantages and limitations of epidemiology in assessing health needs, determining priorities, establishing and evaluating interventions. The value of epidemiological evidence in health policy decision-making. Health information provision for decision making. Information systems in public health.
5. Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention in the context of the natural history of the disease. Epidemiological uncertainties and their consequences for policy. Tension between strategies for populations and high risk groups for preventive interventions. The advantages and disadvantages of primary care as a setting for health promotion. Behavioural aspects of health promotion interventions at both the individual and community level. Is prevention better than cure?
6. Conceptual model of inputs and processes: felt need, demand, normative need, met need, unmet need, overmet need, illness behaviour, professional judgement and rationing. Clinical iceberg. Measures of utilisation of health care: service-based, population-based. Need and use: effect of age and social class, use/need ratios, inverse care law. Use as a measure of met and unmet need.
7. Patterns in the organisation of health services. Health systems in industrialised countries. Why compare health systems? Frameworks for comparison. Primary health care.
8. Public sources of finance. Private sources of finance. Health insurance. Problems of data collection, problems of coordination. Expenditure per capita and as proportion of GDP: problems of definition of expenditure, problems of international comparisons, effect of adjustment on social sector spending. Technology assessment. What financial strategies and methods are available to improve the management of health services?
9. Outcome measures. Efficacy, efficiency, effectiveness. Cost-effectiveness analysis. Cost-utility analysis. Cost-benefit analysis. Humanity of care. Defining equity. Measuring equity. Setting priorities for health services: why set priorities for health services?, stages of priority setting, how to involve the public, consensus development methods.
10. Current state of health services. Problems in health services management: lack of knowledge about outcome, lack of use of knowledge about outcome, powerful professions, organisational complexity, environmental changes. Outcome research. Quality assurance: methods for changing behaviour or practice, education, feedback of information, incentives, administrative processes, regulation. Organisational and financial management, modelling.
HOLČÍK, Jan. Systém péče o zdraví a zdravotní gramotnost (System of health care and health literacy). 1. vydání. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 2010. 293 pp. Škola a zdraví pro 21. století. ISBN 978-80-210-5239-0. info
Language in which the course is taught
The course can also be completed outside the examination period.
The course is taught annually.
The course is taught: every week.