This is the third lecture course for students of general physics and of physics teaching. Description of vibrations and waves in physical systems goes across standard division of physical disciplines and includes mechanics, electricity and magnetism and a small part of the micro-world physics. Optics is more independent discipline follow-up to general knowledge of waves.
The main objective of the course is to provide the students in the scope of the lectured topics with the ability to
- formulate the physical background of the problems within lectured topics and to handle their mathematical description
- assemble an approximative solution of the selected problem in a way close to experimental reality
- list important applications for the topics lectured and to explain the appropriate demonstration experiments.
1. Oscillations. Harmonic oscillator, damped and forced oscilations, resonance. Principle of superposition. Nonlinear oscilator. Oscillation with two and more degrees of freedom.
2. Waves. Traveling and standing waves. Harmonic wave, wave pulse. Waves in one dimension and waves in 3D space. Plane and spherical waves. Transverse and longitudinal waves. Wave equation. Superposition. Energy of mechanical waves. Doppler effect. Dispersion and nonlinearity.
3. Surface water waves. Sound waves. Physics of music. Humar ear.
4. Light waves, photon. Spectrum of light. Electromagnetic theory of light. Wave equation. Propagation of light in vacuum and nonabsorbing medium.
5. Geometrical optics. Fermat principle. Imaging, Gauss approximation. Lenses, mirrors. Matrix representation. Aberration of lenses. Simple optical instruments. Human eye, color vision, optical illusions.
6. Interference light. Time and spatial coherence. Interference of monochromatic light, two sources of light (Young, Michelson, Jamin), multiple-beam interference (thin film, Fabry-Perot). Interference of nonmonochromatic light, interference spectroscopy., Young experiment.
7. Diffraction of light. Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction. Fraunhofer approximation, diffraction on aperture and on grating. Fresnel approximation.
9. Reflection and refraction of light. Optical properties of medium. Microscope theory, interaction of light with medium. Lorentz and Drude model. Index of refraction and absorption. Spectroscopy. Isotropic and anisotropic medium. Polarized light. Polarized and unpolarized light, polarizers and compensators. Optical activity. Interference of polarized light.
Abbe theory of imaging, optical filtration, phase contrast, principle of holography.
J.Peatross, M.Ware: Physics of Light and Optics http://optics.byu.edu/BYUOpticsBook.pdf
HECHT, Eugene. Optics. 4th ed. San Francisco: Addison Wesley, 2002. vi, 698 s. ISBN 0-321-18878-0. info
MAIN, Iain G. Kmity a vlny ve fyzice. Translated by Josef Preinhaelter. [Vyd. 1.]. Praha: Academia, 1990. 346 s. ISBN 80-200-0272-3. info
HALLIDAY, David, Robert RESNICK and Jearl WALKER. Fyzika (Physics). 1. vyd. Brno, Praha: Vutium, Prometheus, 2001. ISBN 80-214-1868-0. info
FEYNMAN, Richard P., Robert B. LEIGHTON and Matthew SANDS. Feynmanove prednášky z fyziky 2. 2. vyd. Bratislava: Alfa, 1985. 488 s. info
The course consists of the lectures including the demonstration of important experiments (the electronic support materials are presented in IS) and the mandatory excersize (particular problems are solved according to lectured topics). The excersize contains also a credit set of problems to solve and two written tests.
To be able to proceed to the exam student needs to pass both of the tests in the excersize and to deliver the solved credit problems. If agreed by the teacher, it is possible to substitute the excersize for which there is a letter of apology by a set of problems to solve. The exam is written (2 hours) and oral.
The course can also be completed outside the examination period.
The course is taught annually.
The course is taught: every week.