The course is also offered to the students of the fields other than those the course is directly associated with.
Fields of study the course is directly associated with
there are 8 fields of study the course is directly associated with, display
Organic chemistry of hydrocarbon derivatives. Analysis of functional groups structure and their reactivity, influence of the neighbouring skeleton upon their reactivity and opposite influence of the certain functional group upon the hydrocarbon skeleton. Sacharides, steroids and heterocyclic compounds in an overview.
At the end of the course the student should understand reactivity of various functional groups and their influence upon the hydrocarbon skeleton with the final aim to deduce chemical behaviour of a complex molecule, which might be a centre of the interest.
Organic Chemistry II
Organic Chemistry of Hydrocarbons Derivatives
Overview of various structures of organic molecules and their reactivity based on described structures including simple heterocyclic compounds. Basic mechanism of the main types of reactions. Methods of preparation of the main classes of derivatives is given.
1. Halogen derivatives. Influence of the carbon skeleton on
the reactivity of halogen derivative. Mechanism of nucleophilic
substitution, S$_N$1, S$_N$2 mechanism and their sterochemical
course. 2. Elimination reactions, mechanism E1, E2, E1cB and their
stereochemical course. Substitution versus elimination. Alpha
elimination reactions. 3. Hydroxy derivatives - alcohols and phenols. Reactivity of the hydroxy group, acidity and the influence of the carbon skeleton on it. Substitution and elimination reactions. Reactions on the carbon rest of the alcohol molecule. Oxidation reactions. Polyhydroxy derivatives. 4. Quinones, structure and chemical properties. Ethers, structure and nomenclature. Physical properties in comparison with alcohols. Typical chemical reactions of ethers(C-O bond cleavage, peroxides formation). Epoxides and cyclic
ethers, their properties. Crown ethers and their application.
5. Thioles and sulfides. Comparison with the oxygen derivatives.
Products of oxidation - sulfinic and sulfonic acids, sulfoxides
and sulfones. Sulfonic acids and their derivatives, their preparation and reactivity, application.
6.Inorganic acid esters, their preparation and application. Amino derivatives and nomenclature. The basic chemical properties. Hofmann rearrangement. Reactivity of amines with nitrous acid. Diazotization and diazonium salts, coupling reactions. Amine oxides and their application. Enamines. 7. Quaternary amonium salts. Hofmann elimination. Reactions with phase transfer catalysis. Diazocompounds.Diazoalkanes, diazoesters, diazoketones preparation and reactivity. Arndt-Eistert-Wolf rearrangement. Azides (Curtius and Schmidt rearrangement).
8. Nitro compounds. Structure and reactivity. Influence of the nitro
group on the carbon skeleton. Preparation of nitro compounds.
Ambident ions. Reduction of nitro compounds. Azo, azoxy and hydrazo compounds. Nitriles and isonitriles. Structure and reactivity and
preparation. Hydrolysis of nitriles. Isonitrile test. 9. Organometallic compounds. Nomenclature. Relation between the metal and the chemical properties. Representatives of organometallic compounds, their reactivity and application in organic synthesis. Preparation.
10. Carbonyl derivatives. The phenomenon of carbonyl group.
Aldehydes and ketones, nucleophilic addition reactions (reaction
with oxygen, nitrogen, carbon and other nucleophiles). Influence
of the carbonyl group on the carbon skeleton and application in
organic synthesis. Summary of the name reactions. Oxidation and
reduction. 11. Carbohydrates (aldoses, ketoses, trioses, tetroses, pentoses, hexoses), nomenclature. Mutarotation and cyclic form.
Reactivity of the carbonyl and hydroxy groups. Products of oxidation and reduction, amino and deoxy derivatives. Disacharides (their structure and reductive properties). Polysacharides - homo and heteropolysacharides, representatives. Cellulose, its preparation and modification, application. Starch. 12. Carboxylic acids, their structure, representatives, chemical properties. Influence of the carbon rest on the acidity. Esterification. Function derivatives of carboxylic acids (esters, halogen derivatives, amides, anhydrides). Preparation and comparison of their properties. Application in organic synthesis. Lipids, their structure, properties. Waxes. Substituted derivatives of carboxylic acids (hydroxyacids,lactones, lactides, aminoacids, lactams, halogenacids, ketoacids). 13.Derivatives of carbonic acid, classification, their reactivity. Steroids. The structure of steroids, stereochemical aspects, numbering and nomenclature. Steroles (cholesterol), sex hormones (male - androsterone, testosterone, female - estrogens, progesterone), adrenocortical hormones, bile acids, cardiac poisons. Difference in their structure and activity.
14.Heterocyclic compounds. Structure and systematic nomenclature of heterocyclic compounds. Relation between the electronic structure and the chemical behaviour. Pyrrole, thiophene, furan, comparison of
their chemical properties. Structure of pyrrole and bile pigments. Indole, indoxyl, indigo. Imidazole, pyrazole, thiazole, oxazole (the main chemical characteristic). Pyridine, structure and chemical properties. Pyridinium salts and pyridinium N-oxide. Quinoline and isoquinoline. Pyrylium salts, flavylium salts, coumarin and chromone, flavones - structure and their occurrence. Pyrazine, pyrimidine (bases of nucleic acids,pyridazine. Purines (the main representatives, bases of nucleic acids). Pterine (structure).
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