The course is oriented on practical basics of data analysis and information technologies application in medicine. Highlighted topics are related to management of data of clinical trials and data storage in hospitals. The data analysis presented during the lectures goes from the descriptive statistics through principles of statistical testing, selected statistical tests for continuous and categorical data to basics of regression modeling and power analysis. All methods are presented using practical examples and common software (Statistica for Windows, SPSS). The subject provides basic knowledge a skills about computer's network. Main objectives can be summarized as follows: to understand the network terminology; to connect personal computer to Internet; to use network services; to reduce risk of lost of data or secret information.
A. Data analysis
1. Basic principles of statistical analysis. Probability in presentation of analysis results. Basics of experimental design and hypothesis testing.; Nominal, ordinal and continuous data in clinical research and their visualization. Special characteristics of clinical data and their subsequences for analysis. Description of data, descriptive statistic, distribution. Calibration, prognosis, models.;
2. Statistical distributions and their usage as model distribution (normal, log-normal, binomial, Poisson, Student, F, Chi square); Confidence intervals, estimation of statistical parameters and their presentation. Estimation of arithmetic mean, geometric mean, median and variability. Statistical summary of discrete and continuous data.
3. Univariate analysis of continuous data. One-sample and two-sample test. T-test for dependent and independent data. Basics of analysis of variance one way and multi-way ANOVA, post-hoc tests. Non parametric tests (Mann-Whitney test, Wald-Worowitz test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample test, Kruskal-Wallis test). Visualization and presentation of results of statistical tests.; * Univariate analysis of discrete data. One-sample and two-sample test. Presentation and estimation of percentages data. Binomial test, Fisher exact test, goodness of fit test, analysis of frequency tables.
4. Basics of correlation and regression analysis. Parametric and non-parametric correlation. Linear regression. Application and visualization of correlation and regression. Basic principles of polynomial and non-linear regression.; Basic principles of multivariate and logistic regression. Multivariate and logistic regression as predictive tools for clinical data. Quality of models and their problems. Multivariate regression in prediction of clinically important parameters example. Logistic regression individualized prediction of patients. Presentation of predictive models.
5. Survival analysis. Probability of survival. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and parameters estimates /median survival times.../. Range of approaches for comparison of two or more survival curves /Log-rank test, hazard ratio, log rank for trends, confidence intervals for survival probability/. "Cohort life tables" and their analysis of survival. Modeling of survival, Cox regression. Examples and application. Design of studies focused on survival analysis quantitative aspects of experimental design, samples size estimation. Survival analysis for stratified clinical trials. EORTC standards for experimental design of survival analysis. Internet and survival analysis: consultation on trials aimed on survival analysis, software for survival analysis. Nomograms for design of survival analysis trials.
6. Multivariate analysis of clinical data; introduction into modern method for analysis of huge amounts of data. Principles of multivariate methods and their application for clinical data analysis. Multivariate and univariate data analysis mutual collaboration or discrepancy? Multivariate data exploration, available tests for multivariate distribution. Multivariate similarity/distance of objects or variables review of important metrics. Dynamic regression models. Neural networks as a possible modeling technique. Data mining and automated analysis of data. Experiments optimizing; application of multivariate methods in sampling design.
B. Information technologies
7. Network - data transfer, hardware, software; Network - Internet. Types of nets, IP - network. Internet; How to connect to the Internet
8. Client x server architecture, Clients, Servers, Services; Network services. FTP - file transfer, Sharing disks and printers, E-mail, services SMTP, POP3, IMAP. Other services, Remote desktop, telnet, talk, Skype;
9. Authorization, Authentication, Login, Password, Cryprography; Security, reducing risk of networks transfer and communication
C. Management of clinical trial
10. Terminology, legal topics
11. Data analysis in clinical trial, design of experiment, power analysis
12. Randomisation and monitoring of clinical trials
ZAR, Jerrold H. Biostatistical analysis. 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2010. xiii, 944. ISBN 978-0-13-206502-3. info
Practical statistics for medical research. Edited by Douglas G. Altman. 1st ed. Boca Raton: Chapmann & Hall/CRC, 1999. xii, 611 s. ISBN 0-412-27630-5. info
Statistika pro biologické a lékařské vědy. Edited by Tomáš Havránek. 1. vyd. Praha: Academia, 1993. 478 s. ISBN 80-200-0080-1. info
Theoretical lectures supplemented by commented examples; students are encouraged to ask quaetions about discussed topics.
Course is finished by written exam (colloquium) aimed on principles, prerequisties and correct selection of methods for solution of practical examples.