The course is also offered to the students of the fields other than those the course is directly associated with.
Fields of study the course is directly associated with
there are 35 fields of study the course is directly associated with, display
At the end of the course students should be able to understand basic processes of life on cellular level. He or she should be able to explain their principles and structural components. In addition, he or she should be able to make deductions based on acquired knowledge to explain differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
1) CHEMISTRY OF A CELL (atoms - molecules - macromolecules; chemical elements in living systems; atomic bonds in molecules; polar and nonpolar molecules; significance of water for chemistry of a cell; main types of organic molecules; saccharides, fatty acids, aminoacids, nucleotides; formation of polymers from monomers in essential cell polymers - nucleic acids and proteins).
2) CELLULAR AND NONCELLULAR FORMS OF LIFE (history and technical limits of cellular analyses by microscopy; light and electron microscopy; organization of living system; noncellular forms of life; cellular forms of life - types of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, basic characteristic; principles of functional organization of a cell)
3) BIOMEMBRANES AND INTERNAL CELL ORGANIZATION (structure and function of biomembranes; transport function of biomembranes; plasmatic membrane; osmotic phenomena; biomembranes of prokaryotic cells; compartmentalization of eukaryotic cells; organelles of eukaryotic cells - composition and function; membrane fusion; principles of vesicular transport; endocytosis and exocytosis)
4) STORAGE AND EXPRESSION OF GENETIC INFORMATION (definitions of a gene and genetic information; main functions of genetic material; chemistry of genetic material; structure of DNA and RNA; replication of DNA;, principles of gene expression; prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription; modification of primary transcript; RNA splicing; translation and genetic code)
5) CYTOSKELETON (components and basic functions; methods of visualization; microtubules; actin filaments; intermediate filaments; nuclear and cortical skeleton; cytoskeleton of prokaryotes)
6) INTRACELLULAR TRANSPORT (cell compartmentalization; protein folding and chaperons/chaperonins; protein sorting; protein import to membrane organelles; transport of molecules to nucleus; secretion and endocytic pathways; transport vesicles; endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparátu in intracellular transport)
7) CELL CYCLE (phases and kinetics of a cell cycle; the role of yeasts in the cell cycle research; methodical approaches to cell cycle analyses; molecular principles of cell cycling; cell cycle regulators; types of cyclins; cell cycle checkpoints; p53 and Rb proteins in cell cycle regulation)
8) CELL DIVISION (types of cell division; binary division in prokaryotes; changes of chromatin during eukaryotic cell division; composition of eukaryotic chromosomes; mitosis and meiosis; roles and phases of mitosis and meiosis; cytokinesis in plant and animal cells)
9) CELL COMMUNICATION (principles of cell signaling, types of signal molecules; the role of chemical properties of signals; types of receptors; endocrine and paracrine signaling; synapses; transfer of extracellular signals to intracellular secondary messengers; G proteins; MAPK signaling pathway; cytokine signaling; SH2 domain; effectors of signaling pathways)
10) CELL PATHOLOGY (physiological and pathological life conditions; cell response to stress; types of stress factors; physical stress factors - temperatures shifts, visible light, UV light, ionizing radiation; chemical stress factors - nonspecific toxins, specific inhibitors; biological stress factors - intracellular parasitism; types of cell death; catastrophic cell death - necrosis: induction, characteristics; physiological cell death - autophagy, apoptosis: induction, characteristics)
11) CELL EVOLUTION (hypotheses on origin of organic compounds and biopolymers; Miller test; ribozymes and RNA world; primitive proteosynthesis; encapsulation; origin of first cells; evolutionary relations among cells; origin and development of eukaryotic cell; endosymbiotic theory)
ALBERTS, Bruce. Základy buněčné biologie :úvod do molekulární biologie buňky. Translated by Arnošt Kotyk. 2. vyd. Ústí nad Labem: Espero Publishing, 2006. xxvi, 630. ISBN 80-902906-2-0. info
lectures and class discussions
Written test is required. To pass the exam, at least 50% of answers have to be correct.
Language in which the course is taught
The course can also be completed outside the examination period.
The course is taught annually.