Health-oriented fitness – one of the indicators of physical health
Physical activity and its influence on the human organism is usually connected with the term fitness. This terms has not been precisely defined and in everyday life it is ascribed various meanings. Fitness often means efficiency, dexterity or hard work, but can be understood more broadly as physical fitness or resistance to bio-psycho-social demands on the organism.
In the area of physical activity the term fitness usually denotes a physical state of a person; we also speak about physical fitness, which is understood as a necessary prerequisite for the efficient physical functioning of an organism. At present research emphasises more and more frequently the difference between health-oriented fitness related to one’s state of health and performance-oriented fitness which is conditioned on physical performance especially in sports specializations.
The concept of health-oriented fitness expresses the idea that the level of fitness is individual and each person needs a different level of fitness for a healthy and active way of life. It enables people to cope with their workload and other challenges of everyday life and to engage sufficiently in physical activities within their free time. The level of health-oriented fitness is not given by performance norms, but takes individual differences into account. A sufficient level of fitness of an ordinary person does not have to correspond to the fitness of a top sportsman.
Regarding the influence on human health, we are mainly interested in the significance of the basic components of health-oriented fitness:
- muscle fitness and flexibility,
- cardiorespiratory fitness),
- body composition.