Bi1700en Cell Biology

Faculty of Science
Spring 2021

The course is not taught in Spring 2021

Extent and Intensity
2/0/0. 2 credit(s) (plus extra credits for completion). Type of Completion: zk (examination).
Teacher(s)
RNDr. Jan Škoda, Ph.D. (lecturer)
prof. RNDr. Renata Veselská, Ph.D., M.Sc. (lecturer)
Guaranteed by
prof. RNDr. Renata Veselská, Ph.D., M.Sc.
Department of Experimental Biology - Biology Section - Faculty of Science
Contact Person: RNDr. Jan Škoda, Ph.D.
Supplier department: Department of Experimental Biology - Biology Section - Faculty of Science
Prerequisites (in Czech)
(! Bi1700 Cell Biology ) && ! NOWANY ( Bi1700 Cell Biology )
Course Enrolment Limitations
The course is also offered to the students of the fields other than those the course is directly associated with.
fields of study / plans the course is directly associated with
Course objectives
Students will gain an understanding of basic principles of life at cellular level. In particular, students will acquire knowledge to explain essential cellular processes, to correctly interpret the role of structural components involved in these processes, and to compare differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Learning outcomes
Upon completing the course, students will be able to: define basic characteristics of cellular and noncellular forms of life; describe basic cellular chemical compounds and their organization to functional complexes; outline the principles of maintaining and expression of genetic information; summarize the logic of internal organization of a cell to compartments and the way of communication among them; describe basic mechanisms of cell cycle control and cell signaling; demonstrate an understanding of the role of extracellular matrix- and cell-cell interactions; categorize the pathological conditions and explain their impact on cell, define types of cell death and describe the differences among them; discuss theories of origin and evolution of cells.
Syllabus
  • 1) CELLULAR AND NONCELLULAR FORMS OF LIFE: history and technical limits of cellular analyses by microscopy; light and electron microscopy; organization of living system; noncellular forms of life; cellular forms of life - types of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, basic characteristic; basic chemistry of a cell - chemical elements in living systems, atomic bonds in molecules, main types of organic molecules; principles of functional organization of a cell.
  • 2) STORAGE AND EXPRESSION OF GENETIC INFORMATION: definitions of a gene and genetic information; main functions of genetic material; chemistry of genetic material; structure of DNA and RNA; replication of DNA; principles of gene expression; prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription; modification of primary transcript; RNA splicing; translation and genetic code.
  • 3) BIOMEMBRANES AND INTERNAL CELL ORGANIZATION: structure and function of biomembranes; transport function of biomembranes; plasmatic membrane; osmotic phenomena; biomembranes of prokaryotic cells; compartmentalization of eukaryotic cells; organelles of eukaryotic cells - composition and function; membrane fusion; principles of vesicular transport; endocytosis and exocytosis.
  • 4) CYTOSKELETON: components and basic functions; methods of visualization; microtubules; actin filaments; intermediate filaments; nuclear and cortical skeleton; cytoskeleton of prokaryotes.
  • 5) INTRACELLULAR TRANSPORT: cell compartmentalization; protein folding and chaperons/chaperonins; protein sorting; protein import to membrane organelles; transport of molecules to nucleus; secretion and endocytic pathways; transport vesicles; endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus in intracellular transport.
  • 6) CELL CYCLE: phases and kinetics of a cell cycle; molecular principles of cell cycling; cell cycle regulators; types of cyclins; cell cycle checkpoints; p53 and Rb proteins in cell cycle regulation; models and methodical approaches to cell cycle research.
  • 7) CELL DIVISION: types of cell division; binary division in prokaryotes; changes of chromatin during eukaryotic cell division; composition of eukaryotic chromosomes; mitosis and meiosis; roles and phases of mitosis and meiosis; cytokinesis in plant and animal cells.
  • 8) CELL SIGNALING: principles of cell signaling, types of signal molecules; the role of chemical properties of signals; types of receptors; endocrine and paracrine signaling; synapses; transfer of extracellular signals to intracellular secondary messengers; G proteins; MAPK signaling pathway; cytokine signaling; SH2 domain; effectors of signaling pathways.
  • 9) EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX- AND CELL-CELL INTERACTIONS: the cell wall of prokaryotes, the cell wall of plants and fungi, extracellular matrix (ECM) of animal cells; ECM composition and function; ECM-cell interactions – focal adhesions, hemidesmosomes; cell-cell interactions – adhesion belts, desmosomes, plasmodesmata, tight junctions, gap junctions.
  • 10) CELL PATHOLOGY: physiological and pathological life conditions; cell response to stress; types of stress factors; physical stress factors - temperatures shifts, visible light, UV light, ionizing radiation; chemical stress factors - nonspecific toxins, specific inhibitors; biological stress factors - intracellular parasitism; types of cell death; catastrophic cell death - necrosis: induction, characteristics; physiological cell death - autophagy, apoptosis: induction, characteristics.
  • 11) CELL EVOLUTION: hypotheses on origin of organic compounds and biopolymers; Miller test; ribozymes and RNA world; primitive proteosynthesis; encapsulation; origin of first cells; evolutionary relations among cells; origin and development of eukaryotic cell; endosymbiotic theory.
Literature
    recommended literature
  • ALBERTS, Bruce, Karen HOPKIN, Alexander JOHNSON, David Owen MORGAN, Martin C. RAFF, Keith ROBERTS and Peter WALTER. Essential cell biology. International student editio. New York: W.W Norton, 2019. xxxii, 734. ISBN 9780393680393. info
  • ALBERTS, Bruce, Alexander JOHNSON, Julian LEWIS, David Owen MORGAN, Martin C. RAFF, Keith ROBERTS and Peter WALTER. Molecular biology of the cell. Edited by John H. Wilson - Tim Hunt. Sixth edition. New York, NY: Garland Science, 2014. xxxiv, 134. ISBN 9780815344322. info
Teaching methods
lectures
Assessment methods
Written test. The test consists of approximately 30 questions, each one merits one point. At least 50 % of points is needed to pass the exam.
Language of instruction
English
Further Comments
The course is taught annually.
The course is taught: every week.

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