VLBC0321p Biochemistry I - lecture

Faculty of Medicine
Autumn 2016
Extent and Intensity
3/0/0. 0 credit(s). Type of Completion: z (credit).
Teacher(s)
Ing. Martina Čarnecká, Ph.D. (lecturer)
doc. RNDr. Jiří Dostál, CSc. (lecturer)
Mgr. Jana Gregorová, Ph.D. (lecturer)
MUDr. Miroslava Hlaváčová, Ph.D. (lecturer)
MUDr. Michaela Králíková, Ph.D. (lecturer)
Mgr. Milena Matejovičová, Ph.D. (lecturer)
RNDr. Hana Paulová, CSc. (lecturer)
Mgr. Ondřej Peš, Ph.D. (lecturer)
Mgr. Jiří Slanina, Ph.D. (lecturer)
prof. RNDr. Eva Táborská, CSc. (lecturer)
doc. RNDr. Josef Tomandl, Ph.D. (lecturer)
Mgr. Marie Tomandlová, Ph.D. (lecturer)
MUDr. Lenka Gescheidtová, Ph.D. (seminar tutor)
MUDr. RNDr. Michal Řiháček (seminar tutor)
PharmDr. Katarína Kostolanská (assistant)
Lenka Nerudová (assistant)
Mgr. Lucie Novotná (assistant)
Mgr. Anna Pleskačová, Ph.D. (assistant)
Mgr. Roman Sándor (assistant)
Guaranteed by
prof. RNDr. Eva Táborská, CSc.
Department of Biochemistry - Theoretical Departments - Faculty of Medicine
Supplier department: Department of Biochemistry - Theoretical Departments - Faculty of Medicine
Timetable
Tue 8:00–9:50 B22/116 aula, Thu 7:30–8:20 B22/116 aula
Prerequisites (in Czech)
VLBI0222c Biology II-pract. && VLBF011c Biophysics - pract.
Course Enrolment Limitations
The course is only offered to the students of the study fields the course is directly associated with.
fields of study / plans the course is directly associated with
Course objectives
The aim of the course is to obtain knowledge on essential metabolic processes on the cell level. Understanding of these proceses is a base for comprihension of metabolism on the tissue and organ level. In the introductory lessons are summarized basic terms from chemistry needed for understanding of body structure a physico-chemical processes occuring in it ((chemical composition of the body, survay of biologically important elements,water, elektrolytes, non-elektrolytes, osmotic pressure, acid-base, redox and precipitation reactions), the following lectures are focused on biochemichal pathways in cells. The graduate is acquainted with principles of acid-base, precipitation and redox reactions, role of macro- and micro elements in the body, properties and function of enzymes, is oriented in catabolic and anabolic pathways of metabolism of saccharides, lipids and proteins and their consequences.Understands the principles of cell bioenegetics.Become familiar with the funcion of cell membranes, principle of cell compartmentation and membrane transport.Has knowledge on proteosynthesis including processes replication,transcription, translation and posttranslantion modifications.Understands the relation between the structure and function of proteins. Is acquinted with function of hemoglobine in oxygen transport.Molecular bases of some diseases are introduced. The course provides the essential knowledge for future understanding of metabolism on organe and inter-organe level and its disturbances.
Syllabus
  • Chemical composition of human body, survay of biochemically important elements, ROS. Water (properties, distribution), elektrolytes, nonelektrolytes, osmotic pressure, osmolality, osmolarity. Acid-base processes (pH, values of pH in organism). Buffers, Henderson-Hasselbalch eqution. Introduction to metabolism. Bases of bioenergetics (Gibbs energy, makroergnic compounds and their formation, chemical equilibrium and stady state). Redox equilibrium (elektrode potential, Nernst-Peters equation, biological redox systems). Membrane structure, the assembly and recycling of membranes. Specialized structures of plasma membrane – lipid rafts, caveols, tight junctions. membrane transport. Enzymes. Characteristic features of biocatalysis, enzyme structure and function, nomenclature and classification of enzymes. Enzyme cofactors, review of structures and functions. Mechanisms of enzyme action. Kinetics of enzyme catalyzed reactions. Assays of enzyme activity, the conditions used. Factors affecting catalytic activity of enzymes, types of enzyme inhibition. Metabolism: basic concepts and design. Biological oxidations, generation of high-energy compounds. Saccharide metabolism: the glycolytic pathway and aerobic decarboxylation of pyruvate. Gluconeogenesis. Glycogen biosynthesis and breakdown. The pentose phosphate pathway. The glucuronate pathway. Interconversions of monosaccharides and of their derivatives. Protein and amino acid metabolism. The common reactions in amino acid degradation. The ureosynthetic cycle. Metabolic breakdown of individual amino acids. Biosynthesis and breakdown of fatty acids, ketogenesis. Synthesis of triacylglycerols. Metabolism of phospholipids and glycolipids. Synthesis of eicosanoids. Biosynthesis and transformations of cholesterol, biosynthesis of bile acids. Interrelationships among the major pathways involved in energy metabolism. The citric acid cycle. Synthesis of haem. Mitochondria. Oxidative phosphorylation - mitochondrial electron transport chain, synthesis of ATP. Structure of haemoglobin, structure-function relationships (the oxygen saturation curve, inducement of haemoglobin saturation and oxygen transport. Bohr effect. Normal haemoglobin types in blood, haemoglobin concentration. Other forms (glycohaemoglobin, methaemoglobin, carboxyhaemoglobin) and abnormal haemoglobins. Biosynthesis and catabolism of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides. Chromatin, DNA replication. DNA transcription. Regulation of gene expression. Protein synthesis and post-translational processing.
Literature
    required literature
  • KOOLMAN, Jan and Klaus-Heinrich RÖHM. Barevný atlas biochemie. 1st ed. Praha: Grada, 2012. 498 pp. ISBN 978-80-247-2977-0. info
  • MURRAY, Robert K., David A. BENDER, Kathleen M. BOTHAM, Peter J. KENNELLY, Victor W. RODWELL and P. Anthony WEIL. Harperova ilustrovaná biochemie. Translated by Bohuslav Matouš. Páté české vydání, prv. Praha: Galén, 2012. xii, 730. ISBN 9788072629077. info
Teaching methods
Teaching form are lectures. Supplementary subjects are seminars VLBC0321s a VLBC0321c
Assessment methods
Subject is a first part of two-semestral subject Biochemistry a is not terminated by exam nor course unit credit.
Language of instruction
Czech
Further Comments
The course is taught annually.
The course is also listed under the following terms Autumn 2017, autumn 2018, autumn 2019, autumn 2020, autumn 2021.
  • Enrolment Statistics (Autumn 2016, recent)
  • Permalink: https://is.muni.cz/course/med/autumn2016/VLBC0321p