aVLFA0721p Farmakologie I - přednáška

Lékařská fakulta
podzim 2020
Rozsah
2/0/0. 30. 2 kr. Ukončení: k.
Vyučováno online.
Vyučující
doc. MUDr. Regina Demlová, Ph.D. (přednášející)
doc. PharmDr. Jan Juřica, Ph.D. (přednášející)
Mgr. Petra Amchová, Ph.D. (přednášející)
doc. RNDr. Ladislava Bartošová, Ph.D. (přednášející)
Mgr. Jana Kubátová, Ph.D. (přednášející)
doc. Mgr. MVDr. Leoš Landa, Ph.D. (přednášející)
Mgr. Kristýna Nosková, Ph.D. (přednášející)
MUDr. Jana Nováková, Ph.D. (přednášející)
MUDr. Jana Pistovčáková, Ph.D. (přednášející)
doc. PharmDr. Jana Rudá, Ph.D. (přednášející)
PharmDr. Jitka Rychlíčková, Ph.D. (přednášející)
Mgr. Barbora Říhová, Ph.D. (přednášející)
PharmDr. Lenka Součková, Ph.D. (přednášející)
doc. RNDr. Lenka Zdražilová Dubská, Ph.D. (přednášející)
Róbert Balog (pomocník)
Renata Bláblová (pomocník)
Agnesa Gabuľová (pomocník)
Květoslava Sedlářová (pomocník)
PharmDr. Katarína Kostolanská (náhr. zkoušející)
Mgr. Kateřina Nebeská (náhr. zkoušející)
PharmDr. Eva Vohlídalová (náhr. zkoušející)
Garance
doc. MUDr. Regina Demlová, Ph.D.
Farmakologický ústav - Teoretická pracoviště - Lékařská fakulta
Kontaktní osoba: doc. Mgr. MVDr. Leoš Landa, Ph.D.
Dodavatelské pracoviště: Farmakologický ústav - Teoretická pracoviště - Lékařská fakulta
Rozvrh
Út 6. 10. 14:00–15:40 B11/234, Út 13. 10. 14:00–15:40 B22/116 aula, Út 20. 10. 14:00–15:40 B22/116 aula, Út 27. 10. 14:00–15:40 B22/116 aula, Út 3. 11. 14:00–15:40 B22/116 aula, Út 10. 11. 14:00–15:40 B22/116 aula, Út 24. 11. 14:00–15:40 B22/116 aula, Út 1. 12. 14:00–15:40 B11/234, Út 8. 12. 14:00–15:40 B22/116 aula, Út 15. 12. 14:00–15:40 B22/116 aula, Út 5. 1. 14:00–15:40 B22/116 aula, Út 12. 1. 14:00–15:40 B22/116 aula, Út 19. 1. 14:00–15:40 B22/116 aula, Út 26. 1. 14:00–15:40 B11/234
Předpoklady
aVLPF0622c Patologická fyziol. II - cv && aVLPA0622c Patologie II - cv.
Omezení zápisu do předmětu
Předmět je nabízen i studentům mimo mateřské obory.
Mateřské obory/plány
Cíle předmětu
The aims of the course are:
to explain the basic pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic processes and principles
to explain the basic principles of therapy of intoxications
to describe the factors that influence the drug effect
Výstupy z učení
Student after the course:
knows basic pharmacodynamic principles
knowns basic pharmacokinetic principles
knows basic factors that influence the effect of drugs
is able to suggest therapeutic measures in case of drug intoxication
Osnova
  • aVLFA0721p - Pharmacology I - Lectures

    General medicine

    Autumn semester 2020

  • 1. PHARMACOLOGY AND ITS SUB-BRANCHES (6. 10. 2020)
  • Definition of pharmacology and its sub-branches of pharmacology. Drug, medical product – basic pharmacological terminology. Sources of research and development of new drugs. Principles of correct drug use – types of pharmacotherapy and rational pharmacotherapy.
  • 2. OVERVIEW OF DRUG DOSAGE FORMS, ROUTES OF DRUG ADMINISTRATION (13. 10. 2020)
  • Classification and overview of drug dosage forms for ready-made production and individual preparation. Drug dosage forms with controlled release. Classification of routes of administration.
  • 3. DRUG DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE (20. 10. 2020)
  • Drug discovery. Preclinical and clinical drug testing. Marketing authorisation.
  • 4. PHARMACOKINETICS I (27. 10. 2020)
  • General principles of drug's fate in the organism. Overview of the basic pharmacokinetic processes and parameters.
  • 5. PHARMACOKINETICS II (3. 11. 2020)
  • Single, continual and repeated drug administration. Principles of therapeutic drug monitoring. Compartment models. Fundamentals of population pharmacokinetics.
  • 6. PHARMACODYNAMICS (10. 11. 2020)
  • Mechanisms of drugs effects – classification, examples. Receptor theory – types of ligands and receptors. Change in drug effect after repeated administration.
  • 7. FACTORS AFFECTING DRUG'S EFFECTS (17. 11. 2020 - NOTE: PUBLIC HOLIDAY, THE TOPIC WILL BE COVERED WITH THE PREVIOUS LECTURE)
  • Classification, overview and examples of factors affecting drug effects. Fundamentals of pharmacogenetics.
  • 8. PHARMACOVIGILANCE AND DRUG'S SAFETY (24. 11. 2020)
  • Adverse effects of drugs - classification and characteristics. Pharmacovigilance in clinical research and practice. Therapeutic index, therapeutic range. Drug anamnesis, polypharmacy and introduction to drug interactions.
  • 9. PHARMACOLOGY OF AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (1. 12. 2020)
  • Overview of pharmacology of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system – neurotransmission, receptors. Basic indications of substances affecting ANS.
  • 10. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGICAL THERAPY, SPASMOLYTIC DRUGS (8. 12. 2020)
  • Definition of terms, advantages and disadvantages of biological treatment in comparison to conventional therapy. Fundamental principles of technologies used in production of biological medical products, their classification and examples of clinical use.
  • 11. GENERAL AND LOCAL ANAESTHETIC AGENTS (15. 12. 2020)
  • Classification and pharmacological characteristics of general and local anaesthetic drugs.
  • 12. ANALGESIC DRUGS (5. 1. 2021)
  • Classification of analgesic drugs. Basic pharmacological characteristics and examples of use of opioid analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesic-antipyretic drugs.
  • 13. PHARMACOTHERAPY OF DIABETES MELLITUS (12. 1. 2020)
  • Insulins and anti-diabetic drugs – classification and basic pharmacological characteristics.
  • 14. PHARMACOLOGY OF SEX HORMONES (19. 1. 2020)
  • Analogues and antagonists FSH, LH. Oestrogens, antioestrogens, gestagens, antigestagens, androgens, antiandrogens basic pharmacological characteristics (classification, basic substances, therapeutic indications/contraindications, adverse effects).
  • 15. GLUCOCORTICOIDS. IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY - IMMUNOSUPRESSIVES AND IMMUNOMODULATORS, BIOLOGICS. (26. 1. 2020)
  • Overview of glucocorticoids for both local and systemic administration, therapeutic use. Overview of drugs affecting immune system - classification, therapeutic use, basic pharmacological characteristics.
Literatura
    povinná literatura
  • Practicals in Pharmacology, 2009, Náhradní obsah: http://portal.med.muni.cz/article-491-practicals-in-pharmacology.html
  • http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=1160493&lang=cs&site=ehost-live
  • RANG, H. P. Rang & Dale's pharmacology. 8th ed. [Edinburgh]: Churchill Livingstone, 2016. xv, 760. ISBN 9780702053627. info
    doporučená literatura
  • Pharmaceutical practice. Edited by Judith A. Rees - Ian Smith - Jennie Watson. 5th ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, 2014. xvii, 552. ISBN 9780702051432. info
  • WHALEN, Karen. Pharmacology. Edited by Richard Finkel - Thomas A. Panavelil. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2015. xi, 664. ISBN 9781451191776. info
    neurčeno
  • Waller, Derek - Renwick, Andrew G. - Hillier, Keith. Medical pharmacology and therapeutics. 3rd ed. New York : Elsevier Saunders, 2009. ix, 744 p. ISBN 0-7020-2991-2.
  • Ritter, James M. - Lewis, Lionel D. - Mant, Timothy G.K. - Ferro, Albert. A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 5th Ed., Hodder Arnold, 2008. 465 s. ISBN 978-0-340-90046-8
  • Pharmacology. Edited by Michelle Alexia Clark. 5th ed. Baltimore: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012. xii, 612. ISBN 9781451113143. info
Záložky
https://is.muni.cz/ln/tag/LF:aVLFA0721p!
Výukové metody
Lectures will provide theoretical background and will be available as online presentations provided as a synchronous lecture at the scheduled time (with the possibility of chat or teacher´s questions) or a will be provided ahead in the form of Power Point presentations with a subsequent discussion and consultation with the teacher at the time of the lecture according to the schedule.

Classes take place periodically in the afternoon. The lectures are followed by practical exercises. The lectures discuss the basic issues of the subject. This knowledge is further deepened via specific practical tasks in exercises. According to the syllabi, materials for self-study and preparation will be available in the study materials for each topic, including references to the relevant chapters in the textbook.
Metody hodnocení
Colloquium - ROPOT test - 40 multiple-choice questions with 3 - 5 answer options. The number of correct answers is given.

Student gets 2 points for each completely correct answer, i.e. maximum 80 points for the whole multiple-choice test. Time limit: 45 min. The MCQ test can be repeated only twice.

To pass the colloquium successfully the student has to obtain at least 40 points.
Vyučovací jazyk
Angličtina
Informace učitele
Course Contents:

INTRODUCTION, TERMINOLOGY, DOSES, PHARMACOLOGICAL CALCULATIONS
GENERAL RULES OF THE DRUG PRESCRIPTION
FLUID DRUG DOSAGE FORMS FOR THE EXTERNAL USE, ORAL AND PARENTERAL USE. GASEOUS DRUG DOSAGE FORMS
SOLID DRUG DOSAGE FORMS. SOFT AND MELTING DRUG DOSAGE FORMS
ROUTES OF DRUG ADMINISTRATION
INTRODUCTION TO PHARMACOKINETICS, PRINCIPLES, PARAMETERS
PHARMACOKINETIC INTERACTIONS. THERAPEUTIC DRUG MONITORING
PHARMACODYNAMICS
ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS
FACTORS AFFECTING DRUG EFFECTS
PHARMACOLOGY OF THE SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM SYMPATHOMIMETICS, SYMPATHOLYTICS
PHARMACOLOGY OF THE PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM CHOLINERGIC DRUGS, SPASMOLYTICS
PHARMACOLOGY OF ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
GLUCOCORTICOIDS
ANTI-DIABETIC DRUGS
SEX HORMONES, UTEROTONICS, TOCOLYTICS
ANALGESIC DRUGS
ANAESTHETIC DRUGS
PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGICAL THERAPY

LIST OF QUESTIONS FOR FINAL EXAM (at the end of spring semester)

General pharmacology: 1. Pharmacology, sub-branches, origin of drugs, drug names. 2. Types of pharmacotherapy, rules of rational and safe pharmacotherapy. The question of drug misuse. 3. Preclinical and clinical trials, stages. 4. Basic legislation related to drug use, Sources of information on drugs and medicinal products. 5. Solid and gaseous pharmaceutical drug dosage forms - overview and their influence on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. 6. Semi-solid and liquid pharmaceutical drug dosage forms - overview and their influence on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. 7. Routes of drug administration – overview, characteristics. 8. Drug absorption, presystemic elimination, drug bioavailability. 9. Drug distribution, volume of distribution, redistribution. General principles of drug movement through the body. 10. Drug elimination, processes of the first and zero order, drug accumulation. 11. Drug biotransformation – stages, examples. 12. Drug excretion (ways of excretion, possibilities of their influence). 13. Therapeutic monitoring of drugs (TDM). 14. Pharmacokinetics of single, repeated and continual drug administration. 15. Modes of drug action 16. Inhibition and induction of enzymes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs – examples. 17. Synergism and antagonism in drug effect (pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics). 18. Dose – response curves, types of doses, drug anamnesis, patient‘s adherence. 19. Adverse drug reactions (types, categories, examples). 20. Pharmacovigilance, drug safety. 21. Primary resistance of the patient to the treatment. Influence of repeated administration on drug efficacy - examples of tolerance and tachyphylaxis. 22. Factors influencing the drug effect – examples. 23. Pharmacotherapy in elderly, the influence of co-morbidities on drug effect, polypharmacy. 24. Pharmacotherapy in pediatric population, in breastfeeding women. Drugs influencing breast feeding. 25. Pharmacotherapy in pregnancy, drug teratogenicity. 26. Pharmacogenetics, influence of genetic polymorphisms on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs. 27. Drug interactions - overview, examples. 28. Principles of biological treatment – classification, technology, examples of clinical use.

Special pharmacology: 1. Sympathomimetics - overview of single classes and their indications, examples of drugs 2. Sympatholytics - overview of single classes and their indications, examples of drugs 3. Cholinomimetics 4. Cholinolytics 5. Antispasmodics - GIT + UGT 6. Opioid analgesics 7. NSAIDs, non-opioid analgesics, antimigraine agents 8. Antiuratics, antirheumatics incl. DMARDs 9. General anesthetics 10. Local anesthetics 11. Muscle relaxants 12. Antidiabetics (except insulins) 13. Insulins 14. Sex hormones and hormones of H-P axis 15. Uterotonics and tocolytics 16. Glucocorticoids 17. Immunostimulants + immunosuppressants (except glucocorticoids) 18. Drugs used in osteoporosis, pharmacology of thyroid gland 19. Antiasthmatics, drugs used in COPD 20. Antitussives, mucoactive drugs 21. H1 antihistamines 22. Antipsychotics 23. Drugs of neurogenerative diseases (Parkinson’s disease; dementia) 24. Antidepressants - iMAO+SSRI+NDRI 25. Antidepressants - tricyclic, NASSA, MASSA, SARI, SNRI, NARI, SMS 26. Nootropics, cognitive enhancers 27. Psychotomimetics, drugs used in ADHD 28. Anticonvulsants 29. Hypnosedatives, anxiolytics 30. Principles of antibacterial therapy – overview, modes of action, resistance, MIC, MBC 31. Penicillins, carbapenems 32. Cephalosporines, monobactams 33. Lincosamides, glycopeptides, polymyxins 34. Tetracyclines + related ATBs, amphenicoles 35. Macrolides and related ATBs 36. Aminoglycosides 37. Sulphonamides, nitrofurans and nitroimidazoles 38. Quinolones, antituberculotics 39. Antimycotics 40. Dermatologics – overview of classes, drugs and effects 41. Antivirotics 42. Antiemetic drugs, prokinetics, antivertigo drugs 43. Laxatives, antidiarrhoics, drugs of infectious diarrhoeas 44. Antiulcer agents, hepatoprotectives and drugs influencing the production and excretion of bile 45. Drugs for inflammatory bowel disease 46. Alkylating cytostatics and other drugs aiming on DNA in oncology 47. Antimetabolites + hormonal therapy in oncology 48. Targeted treatment in oncology 49. Biological treatment of autoimmune diseases 50. Hypolipidemics, anti-obesity drugs 51. Antiangial agents 52. Antihypertensives – drugs targeting RAAS 53. Antihypertensives – diuretics and aldosterone antagonists 54. Antihypertensives beta blockers + central antihypertensives 55. Antihypertensives - calcium channel blockers, α1 lytics 56. Antiarrhythmics 57. Drugs used in heart failure 58. Antiplatelet agents 59. Fibrinolytics, antifibrinolytics 60. Anticoagulants 61.Antianemics, hemostatics 62. Drugs causing addiction 63. Drugs used in the treatment of addiction 64. General principles of drug poisoning, specific antidotes and their mechanisms of action 65. Drugs used in erectile dysfunction and BHP 66. Vitamins 67. Antiglaucomatics and cycloplegics

„Essential drugs“: 1. adrenalin/noradrenalin 2. dobutamine 3. ephedrine/pseudoephedrine 4. phenylephrine 5. oxymetazoline 6. methyldopa 7. salbutamol 8. doxazosin 9. metoprolol 10. timolol 11. atropine 12. butylscopolamine 13. fenpiverine/pitofenone 14. pilocarpine 15. rivastigmine 16. physostigmine 17. solifenacin 18. paracetamol/ASA 19. ibuprofen/diclofenac 20. indomethacin 21. nimesulide/meloxicam 22. buprenorphine 23. morphine/naloxone 24. sufentanil 25. tramadol 26. metamizole 27. allopurinol 28. sumatriptan 29. desflurane 30. propofol 31. ketamine 32. procaine/lidocaine 33. suxamethonium 34. prilocaine 35. metformin 36. glimepiride 37. sitagliptin 38. insulin lispro 39. insulin glargine 40. ethinylestradiol 41. cyproterone 42. tibolone 43. tamoxifen 44. hexoprenaline 45. oxytocin 46. levonorgestrel 47. dexamethasone 48. prednisone 49. cyclosporine 50. interferons 51. methotrexate 52. ibandronic acid 53. acetylcysteine 54. codeine 55. butamirate 56. ipratropium-bromide 57. bisulepine/cetirizine 58. haloperidol 59. olanzapine 60. aripiprazole 61. levodopa/carbidopa 62. metoclopramide 63. escitalopram 64. amitriptyline 65. mirtazapine 66. lithium 67. methylphenidate 68. piracetam/pyritinol 69. diazepam 70. buspirone 71. gabapentin/pregabalin 72. carbamazepine 73. valproic acid 74. zolpidem 75. midazolam 76. phenoxymethylpenicillin 77. co-amoxicillin 78. piperacillin 79. cefuroxime 80. meropenem 81. vancomycin 82. doxycycline 83. clarithromycin 84. azithromycin 85. gentamicin 86. cotrimoxazole 87. ciprofloxacin 88. rifampicin 89. terbinafine 90. caspofungin 91. amphotericin B 92. fluconazole 93. acyclovir 94. zidovudine 95. isotretinoin 96. salicylic acid 97. ondansetron 98. moxastine 99. pantoprazole 100. famotidine 101. lactulose 102. aprepitant 103. loperamide 104. betahistine 105. cinnarizine 106. cyclophosphamide 107. methotrexate 108. 5-fluorouracil 109. paclitaxel 110. doxorubicin 111. cisplatin 112. trastuzumab 113. imatinib 114. interferon alfa 115. nivolumab 116. atorvastatin 117. fenofibrate 118. ezetimibe 119.isosorbid dinitrate/nitroglycerin 120. hydrochlorothiazi¬de/indapamide 121. furosemide 122. spironolactone 123. amlodipine 124. perindopril 125. telmisartan 126. digoxin 127. amiodarone 128. verapamil 129. levosimendan 130. warfarin 131. enoxaparin 132. clopidogrel 133. dabigatran 134. rivaroxaban 135. alteplase 136. methadone 137. buprenorphine 138. nalmefene 139. naltrexone 140. finasteride 141. sildenafil
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