aVLFA0721p Farmakologie I - přednáška

Lékařská fakulta
podzim 2021
Rozsah
2/0/0. 30. 2 kr. Ukončení: k.
Vyučováno prezenčně.
Vyučující
doc. MUDr. Regina Demlová, Ph.D. (přednášející)
doc. PharmDr. Jan Juřica, Ph.D. (přednášející)
Mgr. Petra Amchová, Ph.D. (přednášející)
doc. RNDr. Ladislava Bartošová, Ph.D. (přednášející)
Mgr. Jana Kubátová, Ph.D. (přednášející)
doc. Mgr. MVDr. Leoš Landa, Ph.D. (přednášející)
MUDr. Alena Máchalová, Ph.D. (přednášející)
Mgr. Kristýna Nosková, Ph.D. (přednášející)
MUDr. Jana Nováková, Ph.D. (přednášející)
MUDr. Jana Pistovčáková, Ph.D. (přednášející)
doc. PharmDr. Jana Rudá, Ph.D. (přednášející)
PharmDr. Jitka Rychlíčková, Ph.D. (přednášející)
Mgr. Barbora Říhová, Ph.D. (přednášející)
PharmDr. Lenka Součková, Ph.D. (přednášející)
doc. RNDr. Lenka Zdražilová Dubská, Ph.D. (přednášející)
doc. PharmDr. Ondřej Zendulka, Ph.D. (přednášející)
Renata Bláblová (pomocník)
Květoslava Sedlářová (pomocník)
Mgr. Adéla Bártová (náhr. zkoušející)
PharmDr. Tomáš Hammer (náhr. zkoušející)
Mgr. Mária Hricková (náhr. zkoušející)
PharmDr. Eva Klásková (náhr. zkoušející)
PharmDr. Katarína Kostolanská (náhr. zkoušející)
Mgr. Kateřina Nebeská (náhr. zkoušející)
Garance
doc. MUDr. Regina Demlová, Ph.D.
Farmakologický ústav - Teoretická pracoviště - Lékařská fakulta
Kontaktní osoba: doc. Mgr. MVDr. Leoš Landa, Ph.D.
Dodavatelské pracoviště: Farmakologický ústav - Teoretická pracoviště - Lékařská fakulta
Rozvrh
St 15. 9. 18:00–19:40 B11/334, St 22. 9. 18:00–19:40 B11/334, St 29. 9. 18:00–19:40 B11/334, St 6. 10. 18:00–19:40 B11/334, St 13. 10. 18:00–19:40 B11/334, St 20. 10. 18:00–19:40 B11/334, St 27. 10. 18:00–19:40 B11/334, St 3. 11. 18:00–19:40 B11/334, St 10. 11. 18:00–19:40 B11/334, St 24. 11. 18:00–19:40 B11/334, St 1. 12. 18:00–19:40 B11/334, St 8. 12. 18:00–19:40 B11/334, St 15. 12. 18:00–19:40 B11/334, St 5. 1. 18:00–19:40 B11/334
Předpoklady
aVLPF0622p Pathophysiology II - lecture && aVLPA0622c Patologie II - cv.
Omezení zápisu do předmětu
Předmět je nabízen i studentům mimo mateřské obory.
Mateřské obory/plány
Cíle předmětu
The aims of the course are:
to explain the basic pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic processes and principles
to explain the basic principles of therapy of intoxications
to describe the factors that influence the drug effect
Výstupy z učení
Student after the course:
knows basic pharmacodynamic principles
knowns basic pharmacokinetic principles
knows basic factors that influence the effect of drugs
is able to suggest therapeutic measures in case of drug intoxication
Osnova
  • aVLFA0721p - Pharmacology I - Lectures

    General medicine

    Autumn semester 2021

  • 1. PHARMACOLOGY AND ITS SUB-BRANCHES (15. 9. 2021)
  • Definition of pharmacology and its sub-branches of pharmacology. Drug, medical product – basic pharmacological terminology. Sources of research and development of new drugs. Principles of correct drug use – types of pharmacotherapy and rational pharmacotherapy.
  • 2. OVERVIEW OF DRUG DOSAGE FORMS, ROUTES OF DRUG ADMINISTRATION (22. 9. 2021)
  • Classification and overview of drug dosage forms for ready-made production and individual preparation. Drug dosage forms with controlled release. Classification of routes of administration.
  • 3. DRUG DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE, BASIC PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGICAL THERAPY (29. 9. 2021)
  • Drug discovery. Preclinical and clinical drug testing. Marketing authorisation. Basic technologies of biologics production, their classification.
  • 4. PHARMACOKINETICS I (6. 10. 2021)
  • General principles of drug's fate in the organism. Overview of the basic pharmacokinetic processes and parameters.
  • 5. PHARMACOKINETICS II (13. 10. 2021)
  • Single, continual and repeated drug administration. Principles of therapeutic drug monitoring. Compartment models. Fundamentals of population pharmacokinetics.
  • 6. PHARMACODYNAMICS (20. 10. 2021)
  • Mechanisms of drugs effects – classification, examples. Receptor theory – types of ligands and receptors. Change in drug effect after repeated administration.
  • 7. FACTORS AFFECTING DRUG'S EFFECTS 27. 10. 2021
  • Classification, overview and examples of factors affecting drug effects. Fundamentals of pharmacogenetics.
  • 8. PHARMACOVIGILANCE AND DRUG'S SAFETY (3. 11. 2021)
  • Adverse effects of drugs - classification and characteristics. Pharmacovigilance in clinical research and practice. Therapeutic index, therapeutic range. Drug anamnesis, polypharmacy and introduction to drug interactions.
  • 9. PHARMACOLOGY OF AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM - INTRODUCTION, SYMPATHOTROPIC DRUGS (10. 11. 2021)
  • Overview of pharmacology of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system – neurotransmission, receptors. Basic indications of substances affecting sympathetic NS.
  • 10. PHARMACOLOGY OF AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM - CHOLINERGIC DRUGS, SPASMOLYTIC DRUGS, MYORELAXANTS (17. 11. 2021) - PUBLIC HOLIDAY
  • Basic indications of substances affecting parasympathetic NS. Definition and use of spasmolytic and myorelaxant drugs.
  • 11. GENERAL AND LOCAL ANAESTHETIC AGENTS (24. 11. 2021)
  • Classification and pharmacological characteristics of general and local anaesthetic drugs.
  • 12. ANALGESIC DRUGS, PHARMACOTHERAPY OF GOUT (1. 12. 2021)
  • Classification of analgesic drugs. Basic pharmacological characteristics and examples of use of opioid analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesic-antipyretic drugs.
  • 13. PHARMACOTHERAPY OF DIABETES MELLITUS (8. 12. 2021)
  • Insulins and anti-diabetic drugs – classification and basic pharmacological characteristics.
  • 14. PHARMACOLOGY OF HYPOTHALAMO-PITUITARY HORMONES AND SEX HORMONES (15. 12. 2021)
  • Analogues and antagonists FSH, LH. Oestrogens, antioestrogens, gestagens, antigestagens, androgens, antiandrogens basic pharmacological characteristics (classification, basic substances, therapeutic indications/contraindications, adverse effects).
  • 15. GLUCOCORTICOIDS, MINERALOCORTICOIDS, IMMUNOPHARMACOLOGY - IMMUNOSUPRESSIVES AND IMMUNOMODULATORS, TARGETED TREATMENT OF AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES, DRUGS USED FOR TREATMENT OF HYPO/HYPERTHYROIDISM. (5. 1. 2022)
  • Overview of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids for both local and systemic administration, therapeutic use. Overview of drugs affecting immune system - classification, therapeutic use, basic pharmacological characteristics. Drugs used in diseases of thyroid gland.
  • The lectures will be in-person form and moreover they will be streamed.
Literatura
    povinná literatura
  • Practicals in Pharmacology, 2009, Náhradní obsah: http://portal.med.muni.cz/article-491-practicals-in-pharmacology.html
  • http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=1160493&lang=cs&site=ehost-live
  • RANG, H. P., James RITTER, R. J. FLOWER a Graeme HENDERSON. Rang & Dale's pharmacology. Eighth edition. [Edinburgh]: Churchill Livingstone, 2016. xv, 760. ISBN 9780702053627. info
    doporučená literatura
  • Pharmaceutical practice. Edited by Judith A. Rees - Ian Smith - Jennie Watson. 5th ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, 2014. xvii, 552. ISBN 9780702051432. info
  • WHALEN, Karen. Pharmacology. Edited by Richard Finkel - Thomas A. Panavelil. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2015. xi, 664. ISBN 9781451191776. info
    neurčeno
  • Waller, Derek - Renwick, Andrew G. - Hillier, Keith. Medical pharmacology and therapeutics. 3rd ed. New York : Elsevier Saunders, 2009. ix, 744 p. ISBN 0-7020-2991-2.
  • Ritter, James M. - Lewis, Lionel D. - Mant, Timothy G.K. - Ferro, Albert. A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 5th Ed., Hodder Arnold, 2008. 465 s. ISBN 978-0-340-90046-8
  • Pharmacology. Edited by Michelle Alexia Clark. 5th ed. Baltimore: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012. xii, 612. ISBN 9781451113143. info
Záložky
https://is.muni.cz/ln/tag/LF:aVLFA0721p!
Výukové metody
Lectures will provide theoretical background. The lectures are followed by practical exercises. The lectures discuss the basic issues of the subject. This knowledge is further deepened via specific practical tasks in exercises. According to the syllabi, materials for self-study and preparation will be available in the study materials for each topic, including references to the relevant chapters in the textbook.
Metody hodnocení
Colloquium - ROPOT test - 40 multiple-choice questions with 3 - 5 answer options. The number of correct answers is given.

Student gets 2 points for each completely correct answer, i.e. maximum 80 points for the whole multiple-choice test. Time limit: 45 min. The MCQ test can be repeated only twice.

To pass the colloquium successfully the student has to obtain at least 48 points.
Vyučovací jazyk
Angličtina
Informace učitele
Course Contents:


INTRODUCTION, TERMINOLOGY, DOSES, PHARMACOLOGICAL CALCULATIONS


GENERAL RULES OF THE DRUG PRESCRIPTION


FLUID DRUG DOSAGE FORMS FOR THE EXTERNAL USE, ORAL AND PARENTERAL USE. GASEOUS DRUG DOSAGE FORMS


SOLID DRUG DOSAGE FORMS. SOFT AND MELTING DRUG DOSAGE FORMS


ROUTES OF DRUG ADMINISTRATION


INTRODUCTION TO PHARMACOKINETICS, PRINCIPLES, PARAMETERS


PHARMACOKINETIC INTERACTIONS. THERAPEUTIC DRUG MONITORING


PHARMACODYNAMICS


ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS


FACTORS AFFECTING DRUG EFFECTS


PHARMACOLOGY OF THE SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM SYMPATHOMIMETICS, SYMPATHOLYTICS


PHARMACOLOGY OF THE PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM CHOLINERGIC DRUGS, SPASMOLYTICS


PHARMACOLOGY OF ENDOCRINE SYSTEM


GLUCOCORTICOIDS


ANTI-DIABETIC DRUGS


SEX HORMONES, UTEROTONICS, TOCOLYTICS


ANALGESIC DRUGS


ANAESTHETIC DRUGS


PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGICAL THERAPY



LIST OF QUESTIONS FOR FINAL EXAM (at the end of spring semester)



General pharmacology: 1. Pharmacology, sub-branches, origin of drugs, drug names. 2. Types of pharmacotherapy, rules of rational and safe pharmacotherapy. The question of drug misuse. 3. Preclinical and clinical trials, stages. 4. Basic legislation related to drug use. Sources of information on drugs and medicinal products. 5. Solid and gaseous pharmaceutical drug dosage forms - overview and their influence on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. 6. Semi-solid and liquid pharmaceutical drug dosage forms - overview and their influence on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. 7. Routes of drug administration – overview, characteristics. 8. Drug absorption, presystemic elimination, drug bioavailability. 9. Drug distribution, volume of distribution, redistribution. General principles of drug movement through the body. 10. Drug elimination, processes of the first and zero order, drug accumulation. 11. Drug biotransformation – stages, examples. 12. Drug excretion (ways of excretion, possibilities of their influence). 13. Therapeutic monitoring of drugs (TDM). 14. Pharmacokinetics of single, repeated and continual drug administration. 15. Modes of drug action 16. Inhibition and induction of enzymes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs – examples. 17. Synergism and antagonism in drug effect (pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics). 18. Dose – response curves, types of doses, drug anamnesis, patient‘s adherence. 19. Adverse drug reactions (types, categories, examples). 20. Pharmacovigilance, drug safety. 21. Influence of repeated administration on drug efficacy - examples of tolerance and tachyphylaxis. Primary resistance of the patient to the treatment. 22. Factors influencing the drug effect – examples. 23. Pharmacotherapy in elderly, the influence of co-morbidities on drug effect, polypharmacy. 24. Pharmacotherapy in pediatric population, in breastfeeding women. Drugs influencing breast feeding. 25. Pharmacotherapy in pregnancy, drug teratogenicity. 26. Pharmacogenetics, influence of genetic polymorphisms on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs. 27. Drug interactions - overview, examples. 28. Principles of biological treatment – classification, technology, examples of clinical use.



Special pharmacology: 1. Sympathomimetics - overview of single classes and their indications, examples of drugs 2. Sympatholytics - overview of single classes and their indications, examples of drugs 3. Cholinomimetics 4. Cholinolytics 5. Antispasmodics - GIT + UGT 6. Opioid analgesics 7. NSAIDs, non-opioid analgesics, antimigraine agents 8. Antiuratics, antirheumatics incl. DMARDs 9. General anesthetics 10. Local anesthetics 11. Muscle relaxants 12. Antidiabetics (except insulins) 13. Insulins 14. Analogues and antagonists of estrogens, gestagens and androgens; HRT, hormonal contraception 15. Analogues and antagonists of hypothalamic-pituitary hormones used in pharmacology; uterotonics and tocolytics 16. Glucocorticoids 17. Immunostimulants + immunosuppressants (except glucocorticoids) 18. Drugs used in osteoporosis, pharmacology of thyroid gland 19. Antiasthmatics, drugs used in COPD 20. Antitussives, mucoactive drugs 21. H1 antihistamines 22. Antipsychotics 23. Drugs of neurogenerative diseases (Parkinson’s disease; dementia) 24. Antidepressants - iMAO+SSRI+NDRI 25. Antidepressants - tricyclic, NASSA, MASSA, SARI, SNRI, NARI, SMS 26. Nootropics, cognitive enhancers 27. Psychostimulants, drugs used in ADHD, psychotomimetics 28. Anticonvulsants 29. Hypnosedatives, anxiolytics 30. Principles of antibacterial therapy – overview, modes of action, resistance, MIC, MBC 31. Penicillins, carbapenems 32. Cephalosporines, monobactams 33. Tetracyclines + related ATBs, amphenicoles 34. Macrolides and related ATBs, lincosamides 35. Aminoglycosides, glycopeptides, polymyxins 36. Sulphonamides, nitrofurans and nitroimidazoles 37. Quinolones, antituberculotics 38. Antimycotics 39. Dermatologics – overview of classes, drugs and effects 40. Antivirotics 41. Antiemetic drugs, prokinetics, antivertigo drugs 42. Laxatives, antidiarrhoics, drugs of infectious diarrhoeas 43. Antiulcer agents, hepatoprotectives and drugs influencing the production and excretion of bile 44. Drugs for non-specific inflammatory bowel disease 45. Alkylating cytostatics and other drugs aiming on DNA in oncology 46. Antimetabolites + hormonal therapy in oncology 47. Targeted treatment in oncology 48. Biological treatment of autoimmune diseases 49. Hypolipidemics, anti-obesity drugs 50. Nitrates and other vasodilators 51. Drugs targeting RAAS 52. Diuretics and aldosterone antagonists 53. Blockers of beta-adrenergic receptors + central antihypertensives 54. Calcium channel blockers, α1-lytics 55. Antiarrhythmics 56. Positive inotropic agents 57. Antiplatelet agents, antianemics 58. Fibrinolytics, antifibrinolytics, hemostatics 59. Anticoagulants 60. Drugs causing addiction and drugs used in the treatment of addiction 61. General principles of drug poisoning, specific antidotes and their mechanisms of action 62. Drugs used in erectile dysfunction and BHP 63. Vitamins AEDK, hydrophilic vitamins 64. Antiglaucomatics and cycloplegics



„Essential drugs“: 1. noradrenalin 2. dobutamine 3. oxymetazoline 4. methyldopa 5. salbutamol 6. doxazosin 7. metoprolol 8. atropine 9. fenpiverine/pitofenone 10. pilocarpine 11. rivastigmine 12. solifenacin 13. paracetamol 14. acetylsalicylic acid 15. ibuprofen 16. indomethacin 17. nimesulide 18. morphine 19. fentanyl 20. tramadol 21. metamizole 22. allopurinol 23. sumatriptan 24. desflurane 25. propofol 26. ketamine 27. lidocaine 28. suxamethonium 29. metformin 30. empagliflozin 31. linagliptin 32. insulin analogues 33. ethinylestradiol 34. cyproterone 35. tamoxifen 36. hexoprenaline 37. oxytocin 38. levonorgestrel 39. prednisone 40. cyclosporine 41. interferons 42. acetylcysteine 43. codeine 44. ipratropium-bromide 45. cetirizine 46. haloperidol 47. olanzapine 48. levodopa/carbidopa 49. metoclopramide 50. escitalopram 51. mirtazapine 52. lithium 53. methylphenidate 54. diazepam 55. gabapentin 56. carbamazepine 57. valproic acid 58. zolpidem 59. phenoxymethylpenicillin 60. co-amoxicillin 61. piperacillin/tazobactam 62. cefuroxime 63. meropenem 64. vancomycin 65. doxycycline 66. clarithromycin 67. gentamicin 68. cotrimoxazole 69. ciprofloxacin 70. terbinafine 71. caspofungin 72. amphotericin B 73. fluconazole 74. acyclovir 75. zidovudine 76. ondansetron 77. pantoprazole 78. famotidine 79. lactulose 80. aprepitant 81. loperamide 82. betahistine 83. cyclophosphamide 84. methotrexate 85. 5-fluorouracil 86. paclitaxel 87. doxorubicin 88. cisplatin 89. trastuzumab 90. imatinib 91. nivolumab 92. atorvastatin 93. ezetimibe 94. isosorbid dinitrate 95. indapamide 96. furosemide 97. spironolactone 98. amlodipine 99. perindopril 100. telmisartan 101. digoxin 102. amiodarone 103. verapamil 104. warfarin 105. enoxaparin 106. clopidogrel 107. dabigatran 108. rivaroxaban 109. methadone 110. buprenorphine 111. naloxone 112. finasteride 113. sildenafil

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