aVLPF0521p Pathophysiology I - lecture

Lékařská fakulta
podzim 2020
Rozsah
2/0/0. 30. 0 kr. Ukončení: z.
Vyučováno online.
Vyučující
prof. MUDr. Kateřina Kaňková, Ph.D. (přednášející)
prof. MUDr. Anna Vašků, CSc. (přednášející)
prof. RNDr. Monika Pávková Goldbergová, Ph.D. (přednášející)
prof. MUDr. Julie Dobrovolná, Ph.D. (přednášející)
doc. RNDr. Sabina Ševčíková, Ph.D. (přednášející)
Věra Ježková (pomocník)
Mgr. Lukáš Pácal, Ph.D. (pomocník)
Garance
prof. MUDr. Kateřina Kaňková, Ph.D.
Ústav patologické fyziologie - Teoretická pracoviště - Lékařská fakulta
Kontaktní osoba: prof. MUDr. Kateřina Kaňková, Ph.D.
Dodavatelské pracoviště: Ústav patologické fyziologie - Teoretická pracoviště - Lékařská fakulta
Rozvrh
Út 13. 10. až Út 24. 11. Út 17:00–18:40 B22/116 aula, Út 8. 12. až Út 19. 1. Út 17:00–18:40 B22/116 aula; a Út 6. 10. 17:00–18:40 B11/234, Út 1. 12. 17:00–18:40 B11/234
Předpoklady
aVLFY0422c Fyziologie II - cvičení && aVLFY0422s Fyziologie II - seminář && aVLBC0422c Biochemie II - cvičení && aVLBC0422s Biochemie II - seminář && ( VLLM0421c Lékařská mikrobiologie I-cvič. || aVLLM0421c Lékařská mikrobiologie I - cv. ) && ( aVLFY0422p Fyziologie II - přednáška || aVLBC0422p Biochemie II - přednáška )&& aVLHE0322c Histologie a embryologie II -c && aVLAN0222c Anatomie II - pitvy && aVLAN0222s Anatomie II - sem.
Pathophysiology is a subject focusing on causes (aetiology) and mechanisms of disease development (pathogenesis) incl. changes inflicted by diseases on the level of the whole organism. Disease is usually (with exception of sudden events) a long terms process hidden (asymptomatic) for some time and only later and under certain circumstances might become clinically apparent illness. We aim to help the students to understand WHY and HOW are the changes unfolded. We also aspire to facilitate understanding disease etiopathogenesis complexly, i.e. from initial molecular and/or genetic alterations, via cellular, tissue and organ or event. systemic process. Pathophysiology represents an integrating discipline in medical curriculum bridging the theoretical/preclinical and clinical phase. Inextricably, despite the predominantly theoretical nature of the subject, we want to contribute to the building of the „evidence based medicine“ paradigm accompanied by the appreciation of the „precision medicine“ concept.
Omezení zápisu do předmětu
Předmět je určen pouze studentům mateřských oborů.
Mateřské obory/plány
Cíle předmětu
The aim of the subject is to teach students to be able to answer a sufficient number of pathophysiologically asked questions "why", especially focused on these themes:
Pathological Physiology as a science. Disease, health, normality. Descriptivism contra normativism.
Physiology of genes, regulation of gene activity.
Monogenic and multigenic diseases.
Shock syndrome.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS). Ionising radiation effects on cellular level.
Ionising radiation effects on tissue and organismal level.
Cardiovascular pathophysiology - systolic and diastolic function.
Cardiac failure.
Myocardial ischemia.
Hypertension.
Pathophysiology of the gas exchange in the lungs.
Pathophysiology of respiratory mechanics.
Chronic obstructive bronchopulmonary disease.
Restriction pulmonary diseases, respiratory failure.
Physiology of membrane transports.
Výstupy z učení
Student characterizes state of healthy and disease
Student calls main sources of interindividual variability
Student discusses influences which determined population frequencies of alleles
Student distinguishes mutation types according to the mechanism
Student describes base principles of methods detecting human genome and its variability
Student summarises base types of DNA reparation
Student describes base characteristics of monogenic diseases
Student discusses base principles and indications of gene therapy
Student knows an importance of the term of pharmacogenetics
Student demonstrates understanding of an influence of external factors on disease development
Student characterizes base features of complex diseases
Student summarises importance of epigenetics
Student describes pathophysiology of stress reaction
Student defines homeostasis term
Student is able to describe base principles of multicellular organism functioning
Student identifies disorder of growth and development from ontogenetic point of view
Student describes results of hypoxia including HIF 1 program
Student explains a difference between local and systemic inflammation
Student explains pathogenesis of oedema
Student discusses etiopathogenesis of the most important ion homeostasis disturbances
Student distinguishes base acid base balance disturbances and possibilities of their compensation
Student applies knowledge of volume and tonicity regulation
Student discusses a role of platelets and physiological endothelium during antiaggregation state and understands base principles of antiaggregation therapy
Student knows principles and performance of base coagulation tests
Student explains wound healing process with examples of pathological healing
Student knows pathophysiology of urgent states in oncology diseases
Student explains an importance of micronutrients abnormalities
Student knows results of abnormal vitamin levels
Student explains mechanism of genomic and non- genomic effects of soluble in lipids vitamins
Student discusses pathophysiology of protein metabolism
Student understands the base principles of regulation of glucose
Student interprets knowledge of immune recognition of own and foreign structure on examples of specifically organ and systemic disorders
Student interprets immunological knowledge of hypersensitive mechanisms in pathophysiology of atopic and allergic changes
Student describes onset, signs and results of heart and vessels remodelling
Student applies chronobiology knowledge for explication of different pathophysiological changes
Osnova
  • W1: Pathophysiology of circulatory system I – myocardial metabolism - atherosclerosis – coronary heart disease [Prof. MUDr. Kateřina Kaňková, PhD.]
  • W2: Pathophysiology of circulatory system II – angina pectoris - acute coronarz szndromes - MI complications [Prof. MUDr. Kateřina Kaňková, PhD.]
  • W3: Pathophysiology as a medical discipline – health vs. disease – definition of major concepts (aetiology, pathogenesis, syndrome/symptom etc.) [Prof. MUDr. Kateřina Kaňková, PhD.]
  • W4: Pathophysiology of circulatory system III – pressure and volume overload (esp. SAH, heart and valve defects, cardiomyopathies) - systolic and diastolic dysfunction – heart failure [Prof. MUDr. Anna Vašků, CSc.]
  • W5: Pathophysiology of respiratory system I – blood gases exchange – ventilation / diffusion / perfusion) disorders – ventilation-perfusion mismatch [Prof. MUDr. Kateřina Kaňková, PhD.]
  • W6: Pathophysiology of respiratory system II – control of ventilation – respiratory insufficiency syndromes, pulmonary oedema, respiratory distress syndrome, selected restrictive lung diseases [Prof. MUDr. Kateřina Kaňková, PhD.]
  • W7: public holiday
  • W8: Pathophysiology of respiratory system III – obstructive diseases (bronchial asthma and COPD), pulmonary hypertension [Prof. MUDr. Anna Vašků, CSc.]
  • W9: Pathophysiology of respiratory system IV – disorders of pulmonary circulation – pulmonary hypertension – classification of lung oedemas – pulmonary embolism – surfactant and respiratory distress syndromes – selected restrictive pulmonary diseases [Prof. MUDr. Julie Dobrovolná, PhD.] W10: Cell/tissue/organ/multicellular organism – regulation of proliferation, differentiation and cell death (necrosis vs. apoptosis in the pathophysiological context), tissue injury – cytokines and chemokines, acute inflammation, acute phase reaction - regeneration/reparation – wound healing and its disorders [Doc. RNDr. Monika Pávková-Goldbergová, PhD.]
  • W11: Chronic inflammation as a pathologic process – etiopathogenesis, consequences (esp. fibrosis) examples, systemic inflammation (incl. sepsis), multi-organ dysfunction, SIRS, shock [Prof. MUDr. Julie Dobrovolná, PhD.]
  • W12: Cancer as a systemic disease - paraneoplastic syndromes – cancer cachexia – oncologic emergencies [Prof. MUDr. Anna Vašků, CSc.]
  • W13: Pathophysiology of kidneys I – glomerular haemodynamic – GFR and its quantification – pathology of glom. filtration membrane – proteinuria, glomerulopathies incl. glomerulonephritis) [Prof. MUDr. Kateřina Kaňková, PhD.]
  • W14: Pathophysiology of kidneys II – acute (AKI) and chronic renal failure [Prof. MUDr. Kateřina Kaňková, PhD.]
Literatura
    povinná literatura
  • DAMJANOV, Ivan. Pathophysiology. Illustrated by Matthew Chansky. 1st ed. Philadelphia: Saunders/Elsevier, 2009. vii, 464. ISBN 9781416002291. info
    doporučená literatura
  • KUMAR, Vinay, Abul K. ABBAS a Jon C. ASTER. Robbins & Cotran pathologic basis of disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2015. xvi, 1391. ISBN 9780323266161. info
    neurčeno
  • HUETHER, Sue E. a Kathryn L. MCCANCE. Understanding pathophysiology. Edited by Valentina L. Brashers. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 2008. xxi, 1194. ISBN 9780323049900. info
  • PORTH, Carol. Essentials of pathophysiology : concepts of altered health states. Edited by Kathryn J. Gaspard - Kim A. Noble. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2010. xxiv, 1256. ISBN 9781451103182. info
  • MCCANCE, Kathryn L. a Sue E. HUETHER. Pathophysiology : the biologic basis for disease in adults and children. Edited by Valentina L. Brashers - Neal S. Rote. Seventh edition. St. Louis: Elsevier, 2014. xxvi, 1810. ISBN 9780323088541. info
Výukové metody
lecture
Metody hodnocení
The attendance of lectures and only one absence on practicals per semester are necessary for succesfull accomplishment of the subject. Continous control of knowlledge in practicals is fully in powers of teachers (assays, tests...). Elaborated proceedings of practicals will be put to teachers for credit.
Vyučovací jazyk
Angličtina
Informace učitele
http://www.med.muni.cz/patfyz
Due to the current situation regarding the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 epidemics a concomitant measures imposed by Czech government, South Moravia regional epidemiology office and university management we will combine contact teaching (practicals) together with online lectures according to official schedule. The lectures will take place in MS Teams (access code 9p4cksx). Handouts for lectures will be provided via IS in pdf.
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Studijní materiály
Předmět je vyučován každoročně.
Předmět je zařazen také v obdobích podzim 2017, podzim 2018, podzim 2019, podzim 2021.