INNOLEC_II Advances and new trends in natural sciences

Přírodovědecká fakulta
podzim 2018
Rozsah
6/0/0. 2 kr. Ukončení: zk.
Vyučující
Zahraniční vyučující (přednášející)
prof. Ing. Miloš Barták, CSc. (cvičící)
doc. Mgr. Tomáš Bartonička, Ph.D. (cvičící)
Mgr. Veronika Jálová, Ph.D. (cvičící)
prof. RNDr. Viktor Kanický, DrSc. (cvičící)
prof. RNDr. Petr Klán, Ph.D. (cvičící)
doc. RNDr. Martin Kolář, Ph.D. (cvičící)
doc. Mgr. Karel Novotný, Ph.D. (cvičící)
Mgr. Jan Přibyl, Ph.D. (cvičící)
prof. RNDr. Omar Šerý, Ph.D. (cvičící)
doc. Mgr. Monika Vítězová, Ph.D. (cvičící)
Garance
prof. RNDr. Viktor Kanický, DrSc.
Přírodovědecká fakulta
Kontaktní osoba: Mgr. Petr Bureš
Dodavatelské pracoviště: Přírodovědecká fakulta
Omezení zápisu do předmětu
Předmět je otevřen studentům libovolného oboru.
Cíle předmětu
At the end of the course students will acquire knowledge on present state of natural sciences advances in research and development and future prospects
Osnova
  • prof. Boris Apanasov (Oklahoma State University, USA)
    Complex hyperbolic geometry and deformations of real hyperbolic structures
    The course will be an exploration of complex hyperbolic geometry from many points of view and with respect to its connections to various fields such as complex analysis, Riemannian geometry (especially geom-etry of negatively curved spaces), symplectic and contact geometry, Lie groups a.o. The complex hyperbolic geometry unites the above fields all together and provides highly perspective and diverse directions for research. Now it attracts curiosity of researchers from many different branches of mathematics and theoretical physics. So it is very good for young mathematicians to get some knowledge of complex geometry in order to get interesting research problems in algebra, geometry (geo-metric structures on manifolds), topology, theory of representations, modern analysis (real, harmonic, complex, non-linear and , generally, geometric one).
    To encourage student participation, some times the class will be conducted as a seminar. Some problems formulated and discussed in class may serve as a basis for study toward student’s Master or Ph.D. degree.
    September + October 2017

    prof. Vladimír J. Balcar (University of Sydney, AUSTRALIA)
    Blood Brain Barrier – Cinderella of Neurosciences?
    Blood brain barrier (BBB) is often neglected when we teach (or learn) neurosciences. BBB is an enigmatic notion – does it belong to neuroanatomists or is it really in the realm claimed by neurophysiolgists? Should it be viewed as the most important mechanism protecting the central nervous system from the constant onslaught of neurotoxic substances in the environment? Or, is it merely a nuisance while we are performing in vivo animal experiments and want to administer neuroactive drugs? Historically, there has not even been an agreement on who discovered, or, at least, formulated, the concept of the “hematoencephalic” barrier. And, of course, the pharmaceutical industry does not like BBB (but they can’t ignore it!).
    In the past decade or so there has been a minor renaissance in the interest in BBB, though, probably because it has been linked to serious pathologies.
    I will briefly review the following:
    • Nature and characteristics of BBB
    • Physiological maintenance of BBB
    • Changes in BBB in health and disease
    • Ways to overcome BBB in drug design and pharmacotherapy
    • BBB in experimental neurosciences
    Finally, I will indicate which way the future directions in the research on BBB may be pointing.
    September 2017

    prof. Nikolay Britun (Université de Mons, FRANCE)
    Spectroscopy-based techniques for plasma diagnostics and their applications
    The time-resolved imaging of the ground state particles in the high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering discharges
    The application of plasma diagnostics to understand the greenhouse gas decomposition in microwave plasma
    Characterization of the atmospheric plasma sources by laser-based diagnostic techniques
    Plasma diagnostics plays crucial role in the understanding of various physical processes happening in gaseous discharges. Among the various plasma diagnostic techniques the optical diagnostics is especially demanding since it allows to measure the important discharge parameters, e.g. electron temperature, gas temperature, atom and ion concentrations, etc., without perturbing the discharge itself. The presented lectures are targeted to overview the main types and applications of the non-intrusive plasma diagnostic techniques based on optical spectroscopy. Optical emission spectroscopy, optical absorption spectroscopy, laser-induced fluorescence, etc. Techniques and their applications to the low pressure and high-pressure plasma discharges are reviewed. Special attention is given to the a). Particle imaging in the magnetron sputtering plasma, b). Diagnostics of the greenhouse gases decomposition in microwave discharges, and c). to diagnostics of the atmospheric discharges, such as plasma torches.
    November 2017

    prof. Bryan W. Brooks (Baylor University, Texas, USA)
    Perspectives on Urbanization and Contaminants of Emerging Concern
    More people now live in cities than ever before. Historically, human populations thrived near rivers and their mouths at coastlines, but with urban expansion the footprints of metropolitan areas extend throughout watersheds and ultimately encompass smaller order tributaries. Such population densities dictate the need for new water supplies and reclamation infrastructure, which results in effluent discharges to these headwater streams and other tributaries, dramatically modifying instream hydrology, particularly in regions where ephemeral streams are normative. When effluent-dominated and dependent instream flows become critical arteries for beneficial water reuse, as increasingly is observed in areas experiencing climate changes and rapid population growth, an urban water cycle is realized. In fact, in addition to concentrating resource use in urban regions, increasing access to, consumption of and concentration of chemical use is occurring faster than environmental systems or treatment technologies are implemented in developing countries. Here I briefly review some scientific lessons learned from our study of down the drain chemicals, including ionizable pharmaceuticals and other contaminants, in urban aquatic systems. Though many questions remain unanswered, studies of biologically active ionizables have provided, and will continue to develop, an advanced understanding of environmental hazards and risks in urbanizing aquatic systems.
    September 2017

    prof. Hebe Carreras (National University of Cordoba, Cordoba, ARGENTINA)
    Lichens as bioindicators of environmental pollution
    Lichens are often employed as biomonitors in urban environments where high levels of heavy metals are frequently found. However, when the concentration of metals is high enough, they might produce some damage in lichen thalli. As a result, several physiological mechanisms activated by the presence of air pollutants are altered and changes in their original sensibility or tolerance to gaseous compounds could be expected. In addition, the influence of meteorological parameters, such as mean atmospheric temperature, could also modify the uptake of constitutive elements in thalli.
    November 2017

    prof. Vittorio Colombo (Universitá di Bologna, ITALY)
    Endodontic and restorative dental treatments, disinfection
    The first part of the talk will deal with Cold Atmospheric Plasmas (CAPs) as the centerpiece of a family of simple and environmentally friendly methods for the synthesis and modification of nanostructures in liquid environments [1].
    Results highlighting the role of the chemical composition of the liquid environment (either NaCl + NaOH or NaCl only, dissolved in distilled water) on the characteristics of the produced nanoparticles will be presented. Furthermore, the possibility of synthesizing nanoparticles from a nebulized solution containing metallic salts will be discussed; this process opens up the possibility to simultaneously synthesize nanoparticles and polymerize an organic monomer, depositing a nanostructured coating. A similar approach, simultaneously depositing silver nanoparticles and a polymeric matrix, will be presented as well [2].
    The second part of the talk will discuss CAP applications in dentistry, which have been extensively studied around the world for their relevance and potential economic impact since the early 2000s [3].
    Endodontics, restorative dentistry, teeth bleaching and wound healing are among the explored fields. Here we will present the development of a plasma source for dental applications, from its early design to its progressive adaptation to comply with the requirements posed by the clinical practice; the plasma source efficacy in root canal disinfection and dental restoration will be discussed as well.

    [1] T. Velusamy, A. Liguori, M. Macias-Montero, D. B. Padmanaban, D. Carolan, M. Gherardi, V. Colombo, P. Maguire, V. Svrcek and D. Mariotti: Plasma Proc. Polym. 14, e1600224 (2017).
    [2] A. Liguori, E. Traldi, E. Toccaceli, R. Laurita, A. Pollicino, M. L. Focarete, V. Colombo and M. Gherardi: Plasma Proc. Polym. 13, 6, p. 623-632 (2017).
    [3] M. Gherardi, R. Tonini and V. Colombo: Trends Biotechnol., DOI: 10.1016/j.tibtech.2017.06.009 (2017).

    DAY 2
    Current research activities on plasma assisted material processing and plasma assisted bio-applications at UNIBO-PART 2:
    1.5h Prof. Vittorio Colombo: RF thermal plasmas (nanoparticle synthesis, process design and optimization, bio applications)
    1.5h Dr. Matteo Gherardi: Cancer cell treatment and agricultural applications
    In the first part of the talk, RF inductively coupled plasmas for nanoparticle synthesis will be introduced and advantages and disadvantages of the technology will be discussed, focusing in particular on the challenges posed by up-scaling. The use of modeling instruments as supporting tools for the design and engineering of industrial-scale high-throughput thermal plasma systems for nanoparticle synthesis will be discussed [1, 2]. Furthermore, the possibility to downscale the technology, redesigning it to address biomedical purposes will be illustrated [3].
    CAPs have shown antitumor activity in both in vitro and in vivo systems, but the mechanisms responsible for CAP-cell interaction are not yet completely understood. In the second part of the talk, results of CAP proapoptotic effects on human T-lymphoblastoid leukemia cells will be presented; in particular, Bax/Bcl-2 and caspase-8 expression was analyzed to evaluate the involvement of intrinsic and/or extrinsic pathways and intracellular ROS levels were detected [4].
    Finally, the possibility to use plasma activated water (PAW) for agricultural purposes will be highlighted. In particular, results on the use of PAW as an alternative means to control plant diseases will be presented, showing the cases of tomato plants inoculated with Xanthomonas vesicatoria under greenhouse conditions and phytoplasma infected grapevine plants in vineyards.

    [1] S. Bianconi, M. Boselli, M. Gherardi and V. Colombo: Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 37, 3, p717-738 (2017).
    [2] S. Bianconi, M. Boselli, M. Gherardi and V. Colombo: J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50, 16, 165204 (2017).
    [3] D. Barbieri, M. Boselli, F. Cavrini, V. Colombo, M. Gherardi, M. P. Landini, R. Laurita, A. Liguori, and A. Stancampiano: Biointerphases 10, 029519 (2015).
    [4] E. Turrini, R. Laurita, A. Stancampiano, E. Catanzaro, C. Calcabrini, F. Maffei, M. Gherardi, V. Colombo and C. Fimognari: Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev. 2017, 4271065 (2017).
    November 2017

    prof. Yana Fedortchouk (Dalhousie University, CANADA)
    Diamond as a messenger from the Earth’s interior: natural samples and experiment
    Natural diamond is a valuable conveyor of information from a large range of depths and ages, with unique applications for origins of cratons, processes in subcontinental mantle including kimberlite magmatism, and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism in collision orogens.
    The short course is aimed to introduce students to studies of diamonds in natural samples and in experiments. We will discuss natural occurrences, formation, and survival of diamonds in different settings. We will learn how the modern analytical techniques help to reveal this information from diamond inclusions, isotopes, impurities, defects, and surface dissolution features. We will see how experimental studies of diamond dissolution features reproduce the conditions of diamond natural environments and help to predict diamond preservation in kimberlites. The practical part will be dedicated to plotting and interpreting data acquired using advanced analytical techniques and experiments.
    September 10th, 2017

    Dr. Katja Fricke (Liebnitz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology, GERMANY)
    Creating Biointerfaces - Plasma modified surfaces for tailoring cell-surface interactions
    Antje Quade, Birgit Finke, Holger Testrich, Claudia Stancu, Frank Hempel, Klaus-Dieter Weltmann, Katja Fricke Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (INP Greifswald e.V.), Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald, Germany

    Materials with tailored chemical and morphological properties provide an indispensable platform to induce a certain response when exposed to biological systems. Hence, bioactive surfaces are of growing interest for a vast number of applications such as biochips, biosensors, drug delivery systems, and tissue engineering. Plasma-based processes for creating or modifying solid surfaces destined for use in biomedical applications have an historical development dating back at least to the 1960s. Plasma technology is used to modify surfaces to improve the attachment of bioactive compounds and living cells or to prevent cell growth. Herein, recent innovations are presented in the deposition of high-quality functional thin films using low-pressure and atmospheric pressure plasma processes. The deposition of thin plasma polymerized films to create coatings with varying degrees of functionalization to adjust either adhesive or repellent surfaces is shown. For scientific understanding, the surface properties of the obtained coatings were analyzed in detail, e.g. by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, along with cell culture investigations to study the attachment and proliferation of osteoblast-like cells. For any biomedical application, the issue of stability (so-called ageing in air, and resistance against dissolution in aqueous media) is very important which will be further addressed in this contribution.

    Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-based generation of antimicrobial surface properties - Deposition of copper films and release coatings
    Monique Levien1, Eva Trávníčková2, Holger Testrich1, Klaus-Dieter Weltmann1, Katja Fricke1
    1 Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (INP Greifswald e.V.), Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald, Germany
    2 Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, CZ62500 Brno, Czech Republic Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, CZ60200 Brno, Czech Republic

    Surface finishing of medical products with anti-microbial properties is crucial for their future use in patients to reduce or prevent nosocomial infections. The rise in bacterial infections and associated increasing health concerns has led to intensified research and development of antimicrobial coatings for healthcare, packaging and pharmaceutical production. In order to combat, or substantially reduce, the extent of bacterial attachment, several plasma-based methodologies have been developed to design antimicrobial surfaces. Among existing strategies, the application of metal-based biocides, such as silver and copper, are of considerable interest since they are able to kill most of the bacteria effectively. In this contribution, we present the latest results on the deposition of copper coatings as well as copper-containing plasma polymer or plasma sprayed coatings with tailored release properties. Since these coatings are intended for direct contact with living tissue (e.g. wound dressing) and copper is known to have a lethal effect above some threshold, we examined the influence of process parameters on the physico-chemical properties of the coating and its copper release rate. Furthermore, the bactericidal efficacy of the deposit was evaluated.
    October 2017

    Dr. Mike Froehlich (University of Greifswald, GERMANY)
    HiPIMS and Plasma Based Ion Implantation - an interesting combination
    Introduction of the activity of the department for Plasma Surface Technology of the INP Greifswald in recent topic of HiPIMS technology. Selected cases of development of plasma-assisted processes using additional technique of PBII for modification of surfaces will be discussed, e.g. automobile construction, aeronautics, optics, microelectronics, tool sector. The advantages and disadvantages of the method.

    Atmospheric pressure plasmas for surface modification - applications, trends and new developments
    Surface modification techniques using atmospheric pressure discharges (dielectric barrier discharges, plasma jets) will be summarised. The materials used in biotechnology, medical technology, and pharmaceutical materials require different surface modifications in order to be fully functional. In recent years plasma technology has become a key technology for medical and biological applications (implants, complete infusion systems, including valves and catheters). Several cases of industrial applications will be discussed in detail.
    September 2017

    Dr. Sonia Garcia (University of Rochester Medical Center, New York, USA)
    To be (concerted) or not to be: molecular evolution of ribosomal RNA genes in the sunflower family
    Here we present an overview on the results of ten years of research line devoted to the organisation, expression and evolution of rRNA genes in plant genomes. We describe how we discovered a new rDNA arrangement in genus Artemisia, which includes all rRNA genes in a single unit (L-type). This was the first time that such organisation was found in seed plants [1]. We further explored family Asteraceae in depth, to which Artemisia belongs, to find that the L-type arrangement may be present in about 25% of its species [2]. Later on we move to gymnosperms to describe the landscape of rRNA arrangements in a representative sample of its diversity [3]. We also assessed the expression rate of the L-type rRNA in several L-type species, which is comparable to that of species with separated arrangement of rRNA genes (S-type) [4]. We have recently moved to deepen our knowledge on the evolutionary models [5] of rRNA genes using an NGS approach. Initial results point to the different evolutionary paces of 5S and 35S rRNA genes, which vary with the genomic arrangement (L or S-type) and which depend on the group of species studied. Further research will allow us to describe in detail the models of concerted evolution and birth-and-death to better explain the evolution of rRNA genes. We will also deepen in our understanding of the variable rRNA arrangements across the tree of life and in the mechanisms responsible of these diverse organisations.
    [1] Garcia, S., Lim, K. Y., Chester, M., Garnatje, T., Pellicer, J., Vallès, J., ... & Kovařík, A. (2009). Linkage of 35S and 5S rRNA genes in Artemisia (family Asteraceae): first evidence from angiosperms. Chromosoma, 118(1), 85-97. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00412-008-0179-z#/page-1
    [2] Garcia, S., Panero, J. L., Siroky, J., & Kovarik, A. (2010). Repeated reunions and splits feature the highly dynamic evolution of 5S and 35S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) in the Asteraceae family. BMC Plant Biology, 10(1), 176. http://bmcplantbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2229-10-176
    [3] Garcia, S., & Kovařík, A. (2013). Dancing together and separate again: gymnosperms exhibit frequent changes of fundamental 5S and 35S rRNA gene (rDNA) organisation. Heredity, 111(1), 23-33. http://www.nature.com/hdy/journal/v111/n1/abs/hdy201311a.html
    [4] Garcia, S., Khaitová, L. C., & Kovařík, A. (2012). Expression of 5 S rRNA genes linked to 35 S rDNA in plants, their epigenetic modification and regulatory element divergence. BMC Plant Biology, 12(1), 95. http://bmcplantbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2229-12-95
    [5] Nei, M., & Rooney, A. P. (2005). Concerted and birth-and-death evolution of multigene families. Annual Review of Genetics, 39, 121. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1464479/
    September 2017

    Dr. Matteo Gherardi (University of Bologna, ITALY)
    Cold atmospheric plasma processing of materials for biomedical and industrial applications
    Cancer cell treatment and agricultural applications

    The first part of the talk will deal with Cold Atmospheric Plasmas (CAPs) as the centerpiece of a family of simple and environmentally friendly methods for the synthesis and modification of nanostructures in liquid environments [1]. Results highlighting the role of the chemical composition of the liquid environment (either NaCl + NaOH or NaCl only, dissolved in distilled water) on the characteristics of the produced nanoparticles will be presented. Furthermore, the possibility of synthesizing nanoparticles from a nebulized solution containing metallic salts will be discussed; this process opens up the possibility to simultaneously synthesize nanoparticles and polymerize an organic monomer, depositing a nanostructured coating. A similar approach, simultaneously depositing silver nanoparticles and a polymeric matrix, will be presented as well [2].
    The second part of the talk will discuss CAP applications in dentistry, which have been extensively studied around the world for their relevance and potential economic impact since the early 2000s [3]. Endodontics, restorative dentistry, teeth bleaching and wound healing are among the explored fields. Here we will present the development of a plasma source for dental applications, from its early design to its progressive adaptation to comply with the requirements posed by the clinical practice; the plasma source efficacy in root canal disinfection and dental restoration will be discussed as well.

    [1] T. Velusamy, A. Liguori, M. Macias-Montero, D. B. Padmanaban, D. Carolan, M. Gherardi, V. Colombo, P. Maguire, V. Svrcek and D. Mariotti: Plasma Proc. Polym. 14, e1600224 (2017).
    [2] A. Liguori, E. Traldi, E. Toccaceli, R. Laurita, A. Pollicino, M. L. Focarete, V. Colombo and M. Gherardi: Plasma Proc. Polym. 13, 6, p. 623-632 (2017).
    [3] M. Gherardi, R. Tonini and V. Colombo: Trends Biotechnol., DOI: 10.1016/j.tibtech.2017.06.009 (2017).

    DAY 2
    Current research activities on plasma assisted material processing and plasma assisted bio-applications at UNIBO-PART 2:
    1.5h Prof. Vittorio Colombo: RF thermal plasmas (nanoparticle synthesis, process design and optimization, bio applications)
    1.5h Dr. Matteo Gherardi: Cancer cell treatment and agricultural applications

    In the first part of the talk, RF inductively coupled plasmas for nanoparticle synthesis will be introduced and advantages and disadvantages of the technology will be discussed, focusing in particular on the challenges posed by up-scaling. The use of modeling instruments as supporting tools for the design and engineering of industrial-scale high-throughput thermal plasma systems for nanoparticle synthesis will be discussed [1, 2]. Furthermore, the possibility to downscale the technology, redesigning it to address biomedical purposes will be illustrated [3].
    CAPs have shown antitumor activity in both in vitro and in vivo systems, but the mechanisms responsible for CAP-cell interaction are not yet completely understood. In the second part of the talk, results of CAP proapoptotic effects on human T-lymphoblastoid leukemia cells will be presented; in particular, Bax/Bcl-2 and caspase-8 expression was analyzed to evaluate the involvement of intrinsic and/or extrinsic pathways and intracellular ROS levels were detected [4].
    Finally, the possibility to use plasma activated water (PAW) for agricultural purposes will be highlighted. In particular, results on the use of PAW as an alternative means to control plant diseases will be presented, showing the cases of tomato plants inoculated with Xanthomonas vesicatoria under greenhouse conditions and phytoplasma infected grapevine plants in vineyards.

    [1] S. Bianconi, M. Boselli, M. Gherardi and V. Colombo: Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 37, 3, p717-738 (2017).
    [2] S. Bianconi, M. Boselli, M. Gherardi and V. Colombo: J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 50, 16, 165204 (2017).
    [3] D. Barbieri, M. Boselli, F. Cavrini, V. Colombo, M. Gherardi, M. P. Landini, R. Laurita, A. Liguori, and A. Stancampiano: Biointerphases 10, 029519 (2015).
    [4] E. Turrini, R. Laurita, A. Stancampiano, E. Catanzaro, C. Calcabrini, F. Maffei, M. Gherardi, V. Colombo and C. Fimognari: Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev. 2017, 4271065 (2017).
    November 2017

    prof. Nandu Goswami (Institute of Physiology, Medical University of Graz, AUSTRIA)
    Spaceflight and Geriatrics
    Physiological deconditioning similar to that seen in spaceflight also occurs on Earth, especially as a consequence of the aging process and also due to bedconfinement and/ or immobilization. Illness or injury in older persons frequently requires hospitalized based care. However, the immobilization that occurs during hospitalisation is itself a major factor in physiological deconditioning and functional decline and in older persons can further contribute to a downward spiral of increasing frailty, dizziness upon standing up (orthostatic intolerance) and increased risk and incidence of falls. Bedrest is used as a ground-based analog for studying the effects of weightlessness on physiological systems as seen during space flight. As older persons spend up to 80% of their time in hospital bed-confined, bedrest studies can also help in furthering our understanding of the deconditioning process during hospitalization in older persons. Astronauts in space spend substantial time doing physical training to counteract the deconditioning due to the effects of microgravity and to alleviate orthostatic intolerance on return to Earth. Could such physical activity programs carried out by astronauts in space be used during bedrest immobilization in older persons to counteract deconditioning as well? Recent data generated from bedrest studies related to space research suggest that resistance exercise, together with proper nutrition, is effective in maintaining physiological functionality in astronauts during spaceflights of up to six months duration. Similarly, some studies have suggested that nutritional therapy (e.g high protein diet), along with resistance training, improves lean muscle mass and muscle strength in older persons. This presentation discusses how knowledge obtained from space research can provide guidance towards optimising health care strategies to tackle bed-confined deconditioning, especially in older persons (”Spaceflight meets Geriatrics!”).
    December 2017

    prof. Olivier Guitella (Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, FRANCE)
    Phenomenological behavior of Corona and Dielectric Barrier Discharges
    Corona and Dielectric Barrier Discharges are at the same time one of the oldest Non Thermal Plasma sources, and one of the most active fields of research in plasma physics. This is due both to the simplicity of their practical implementation and the complexity of the transient phenomena induced by these reactor configurations. More and more industrial applications are based on these plasma sources that provide high chemical reactivity at low temperature and at atmospheric pressure. This lecture will first restart from basics of breakdown mechanisms to explain he variety of discharges in Corona and DBDs. Possible mechanisms responsible for transition from homogeneous to filamentary discharges will then be discussed. Finally some opened question on the development of filamentary discharges will be described.

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets interaction with surfaces
    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJ) have been used in recent decade for numerous applications. Due to the non-thermal character of the plasma jets, one of the most rapidly growing fields where it has been applied is the field of plasma medicine to treat various biomedical surfaces. Another fast growing application of APPJ is for surface treatments especially of polymers. The common point is all these studies is the need to understand the interaction between an ionization wave and surfaces with very different properties, dielectric, conductive, liquid or solid. The APPJ source studied at LPP (Ecole Polytechnique) in collaboration with TU/e is a simple coaxial dielectric barrier discharge configuration powered by a kHz excitation source. A set of complementary diagnostics have been applied to this source in order to elucidate its propagation in the capillary tube, in the freely expanding plume, as well as in contact with various targets. The electric field (Efield) along the propagation has been studied both with Stark shift and commercial probe based on Pockels effect. The Efield on target is imaged with a Mueller ellipsometer to obtain in particular the charge deposited on target by the ionization front. The electron density and electron energy has also been obtained for a few running condition by Thomson scattering. Finally the gas heating has been measured both along the propagation and on targets with optical probes. All these measurements have been performed with and without glass, metal and liquid targets. All these data obtained on the same APPJ source gives a deeper understanding of the modification of the plasma induced by the target itself. This modification of discharge dynamic depending on the target has certainly to be considered for any application of APPJ.
    September 2017

    Dr. Jeffrey D. Herrick (United States Environmental Protection Agency, USA)
    Air pollution effects on ecosystems: Science informing U.S. EPA ecological risk and policy assessments
    Dr. Herrick is an Ecologist with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Research Triangle Park, NC. He received his Ph.D. in Environmental Plant Biology from West Virginia University and conducted his dissertation research on the effects of elevated carbon dioxide on forests. Since joining the EPA in 2002, Dr. Herrick has primarily worked on scientific support and policy-making for the ecological aspects of the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). His current work focuses on the effect of air pollutants on vegetation and ecosystems, with a particular emphasis on direct effects of gaseous pollutants such as ozone, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. Dr. Herrick’s work also includes characterizing the effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition and acidifying deposition on terrestrial ecosystems.
    Dr. Herrick’s presentation will cover his work on assessing and integrating ecological science for the NAAQS program. He will also discuss some of the procedures and tools used at EPA for various types ecological risk assessment. He will be available to answer questions about potential resources and collaborators at US EPA.
    November 2017

    prof. Stefan Hilger (Katholische Universität Eichstätt-Ingolstadt, GERMANY)
    $p$-deformation
    In this talk we are going to present the general notion of $p$-deformation. $p$-deformation is connected to the well-known $q$-deformation by the simple quadratic relation $p = \frac{q + q^{-1}}2$. $p$-deformed algebras have representations in terms of $q$-difference operators. It turns out that this $p$-calculus is much more symmetric and smooth than its $q$ counterpart. We will indicate how the limit $p \to \pm 1 \Leftrightarrow q \to \pm 1$ can be performed in a very smooth and consistent manner. Within this context we will establish connections to classical algebras, Lie algebras and superalgebras.
    October 2017

    Dr. Andrea Ienco (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Chimica dei Composti OrganoMetallici (CNR-ICCOM) ITALY)
    The Renaissance of Black Phosphorus: Phosphorene and its Functionalization
    Until few years ago, black phosphorus was a scientific curiosity. In 2014, a new 2D material, phosphorene, was isolated by mechanical and wet exfoliation of black phosphorus. [1]
    The interest of the scientific community for black phosphorus is described by the exponential growth (from less than 10 in 2013 to more than 500 in 2016) of the number of papers dedicated on it. Phosphorene is a semiconductor with a direct band gap between 0.8 to 2.0 eV depending on number of layers. The material is very attractive for a large number of applications in optoelectronics such as detectors for near and mid infrared radiation, light-emitting diodes or laser. [2]
    We are working in optimizing protocols of reproducible and with high yield synthesis using the wet exfoliation route, the intercalation in polymeric material, the construction of devices and the chemical functionalization of the material [3-5]. In particular as chemist, we were attracted by the possible easily functionalization of the Phosphorus lone pairs on the surface using transition metal atoms. In fact, the immobilization of metal fragments may provide new electronic properties to the overall material. Computational chemistry is a perfect tool for a first screening to get useful hints for synthetic strategy for the development of functionalized surfaces and to predict electronic properties for future applications. I will present our computational screening of the most suitable metal fragments with 1, 2 and 3 coordination modes.

    Acknowledgements: The authors thanks the European Research Council for funding the project PHOSFUN “Phosphorene functionalization: a new platform for advanced multifunctional materials” (Grant Agreement No. 670173) through an ERC Advanced Grant to Maurizio Peruzzini.

    References:
    1. X. Ling, H. Wang, S. Huang, F. Xia, M. S. Dresselhaus PNAS 2015, 112, 4523–4530;
    2. A. Carvalho, M. Wang, X. Zhu, A. S. Rodin, H. Su, A. H. Castro Neto Nature Reviews Materials, 2016, 1, 16061;
    3. M. Serrano-Ruiz, M. Caporali, A. Ienco, V. Piazza, S. Heun, M. Peruzzini, Adv. Mater. Interfaces, 2016, 3, 15000441;
    4. E. Passaglia, F. Cicogna, G. Lorenzetti, S. Legnaioli, M. Caporali, M. Serrano-Ruiz, A. Ienco, M. Peruzzini RSC Adv., 2016, 6, 53777–53783;
    5. N. Hemsworth, V. Tayari, F. Telesio, S. Xiang, S. Roddaro, M. Caporali, A. Ienco, M. Serrano-Ruiz, M. Peruzzini, G. Gervais, T. Szkopek, and S. Heun Phys. Rev. B, 2016, 94, 245404
    November 2017

    Dr. Norbert Jakubowski (Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing BAM, Berlin, GERMANY)
    Wednesday, October 11, 13.00 h
    Method development for metal detection at cellular levels
    Norbert Jakubowski, Heike Traub, Antje Herrmann; Konrad Löhr, Ana López-Serrano Oliver, Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Berlin, Germany; Janina Kneipp, Humboldt University Berlin, Germany; Larissa Mueller, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Bremen
    An overview about different analytical approaches will be presented of how to detect metals in individual biological cells by use of ICP-MS. For this purpose, we are using different sample introduction systems for ICP-MS for detection, imaging and quantification of metals at cellular levels. By use of laser ablation, we have studied the up-take by and distribution of nanoparticles in single cells. Recently we have developed staining techniques to measure protein and DNA content of cells and identifying the cell status by immunoassays using metal-tagging of antibodies. New research based on cell arrays will be shortly discussed. Using pneumatic nebulization and microdroplet generation, we have also studied the up-take of nanoparticles and toxic metals as well as essential elements in single cells using different ICP-MS mass spectrometric concepts (sector field instrument, triple-quad instrument, time of flight (CyTOF) instrument). The different ICP-MS based methods will be compared concerning their analytical figures of merit and their strengths and weaknesses will be evaluated. An overview about different analytical approaches will be presented of how to detect metals in individual biological cells by use of ICP-MS. For this purpose, we are using different sample introduction systems for ICP-MS for detection, imaging and quantification of metals at cellular levels. By use of laser ablation, we have studied the up-take by and distribution of nanoparticles in single cells. Recently we have developed staining techniques to measure protein and DNA content of cells and identifying the cell status by immunoassays using metal-tagging of antibodies. New research based on cell arrays will be shortly discussed. Using pneumatic nebulization and microdroplet generation, we have also studied the up-take of nanoparticles and toxic metals as well as essential elements in single cells using different ICP-MS mass spectrometric concepts (sector field instrument, triple-quad instrument, time of flight (CyTOF) instrument). The different ICP-MS based methods will be compared concerning their analytical figures of merit and their strengths and weaknesses will be evaluated.

    Thursday, October 12, 14.00 h
    Immuno-assay and metal stain development for application in LA-ICP-MS.
    Norbert Jakubowski Heike Traub, Larissa Mueller, Antje Herrmann; BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Richard-Willstaetter-Str. 11, 12489 Berlin, Germany;
    We are using LA-ICP-MS to quantify metals in biological cells and thin cuts of tissues from various organs. Different applications will be discussed to demonstrate the state of the art of bioimaging to visualize the elemental distribution pattern in soft bio-materials (tissue, single cells) of metals and metal-tagged antibodies. For this purpose, different strategies for metal tagging will be discussed and first applications for detection of biomarkers in animal and human tissues will be presented. In a first example, we have applied LA-ICP-MS to visualize the local distribution of proteins, which are used as bio-markers for neurodegenerative diseases. For this purpose, brain tissues from mice experiments have been stained by metal-tagged antibodies. House-keeping proteins serve as internal standards to overcome differences in protein expression. Additionally, ink-jet printing of metal doped inks onto the surface of tissue samples has been applied for drift corrections and quantification. In a second example, we used specific metal-tagged antibodies for detection of prostate cancer and a micro tissue array for high throughput-screening of many patient samples using simultaneous detection of all relevant biomarkers. In the next example application of antibodies for detection of metallothionines in eye lens tissues will be discussed. Recently we have used our tagging strategies to apply metal tagged antibodies to determine the cell cycle of single cells, which is of interest for toxicological studies. Finally future trends in mass cytometry imaging will be discussed.
    October 2017

    Dr. Indreg Jogi (University of Tartu, Estonia)
    Thursday, December 14th
    The use of non-self-sustained Townsend discharge device in the studies of reduced electric field strength dependence of plasma processes
    The reduced electric field strength E/N where E is the electric field strength and N is the gas number density is one of the most important plasma parameters which determines the kinetics of plasma processes in low-temperature plasmas. The E/N dependence of these plasma processes can be obtained by theoretical considerations but the validation of calculations by experiments is often complicated because the electric field in plasma is generally not uniform. One possible solution for this problem is the use of non-self-sustained Townsend discharge which is sustained by external UV radiation and allows to keep electrical currents low and electric field in discharge gap uniform. The lecture gives an overview of the studies where a non-self-sustained Townsend discharge device was used to investigate the effect of reduced electric field on the effective Townsend ionization coefficient, ozone production efficiency and nitrogen emission. The effective ionization coefficient of air was determined by two different methods and the comparison of the obtained dependences with the results of previous studies allowed to validate the usability of the device. The ozone production efficiency of pure oxygen and air has high practical importance. The ozone production starts with the dissociation of oxygen atom by electron impact and the energy efficiency depends on the fraction of energy absorbed by electrons. The possibility to determine this fraction is another good feature of the non-self-sustained Townsend discharge device which allowed the measurement of the ozone production efficiency of air for the first time. The optical emission of nitrogen containing discharges allows to obtain information about the reduced electric field with good spatial and temporal resolution. Our experimentally determined dependence between optical emission and reduced electric field strength had reasonably good coincidence with the theoretical dependence.

    Thursday, December 14
    Plasma and catalyst for the removal of nitrogen-oxides
    Nitrogen-oxides (NOx) are inevitably formed during the burning of fossil fuels and their emission to atmosphere is a serious environmental threat. There exist strict limitations for the allowed NOx emissions from point sources e.g. exhausts of power-plants or engines. Commonly used adsorption and absorption based methods for NOx removal require the oxidation of most abundant NO to NO2 or N2O5. The oxidation can be done by non-thermal plasma but the efficiency of plasma based oxidation methods is also limited and needs further improvements. One possible way to improve the oxidation efficiency is the inclusion of catalyst either directly into the plasma zone or into the flow of post-discharge. Present lecture discusses the role of catalysts in the improvement of plasma oxidation efficiency. The lecture is based on stationary and time-dependent studies of the NOx oxidation at different reactor configurations and experimental conditions. The plasma produced active oxygen species (O, O3) were shown to play an important role in the surface reactions on the catalyst while the exact mechanism and extent of the effect depended on the reactor configuration. Highest oxidation efficiency was achieved with indirect oxidation where only ozone could reach the catalyst whereas direct plasma oxidation remained less efficient. Global chemical kinetic models were derived to describe the effect of plasma and catalyst at different experimental conditions. The back-reaction of NO2 to NO by oxygen radicals was found to be the main cause which limited the oxidation efficiency when catalyst was placed directly into the plasma. The indirect oxidation by ozone allowed to circumvent the back-reaction problem. Furthermore, this configuration enhanced the adsorption of nitrogen-oxides on the catalyst surface. The surface reactions leading to the catalytic effect were further investigated by infrared absorption and the results were consistent with the proposed model.
    December 2017

    Dr. Saara Kaski (Department of Chemistry, University of Jyväskylä, Finland)
    Wednesday, December 13, 13.00 h
    Focus in students – Research-based chemistry education at University of Jyväskylä
    Our mission is to educate high quality specialists in chemistry and the core of our teaching is research – also from the pedagogical view. The process of upgrading the teaching is continuous and it is based on recent pedagogical insights in the field of science teaching. Feedback from the students and the learning is studied through the research carried out by the faculty members and it offers meaningful thesis projects for the chemistry education students. Every action is aimed for the good of our students and the results prove, that the models developed, work. In this lecture, several recent research projects are presented and as an example three different cases concerning working life skills, student well-being and outreaches to the young people are summarized below. The teaching is designed to provide opportunities for students to develop not only in chemistry but also working life skills. For example, each practical laboratory course in the B.Sc. level trains students in different chemistry topic (inorganic, physical, organic, analytical etc.) and each takes responsibility in teaching different skills – some contain problem-based project work in teams during the whole course while another aim in the independent work on given assignments. The obligatory language courses are synchronized to the ongoing chemistry substance and in lab course support reporting or presentation skills or for lecture course teaches the reading of academic texts. To clarify the progression during the B.Sc. laboratory courses, in addition to the clearly named learning outcomes, students are given a table explaining how each course trains in e.g. reporting skills or instrument handling. Such information enables student to recognize better the gained knowledge for job applications and gives a holistic view to the curriculum. As learning is not only attending the lectures, we have developed a collaborative action model to build and enforce the faculty-student relationship. It focuses on the first year with various activities, of which one example is the orientation course at the first week. The orientation course introduces students e.g. to department’s research areas through guided lab experiments in small teams and gives insight to the career as a chemist, when the graduated students come to tell about their career and work. The orientation week ends with less formal dinner to familiarize students to the members of the faculty. Part of the collaborate action model is naturally the general Student Life concept at the Jyväskylä University, in which the trained well-being advisers help students in taking care of their studying ability by offering possibility to discuss of problems concerning not only studying but also the “real life”. To attract motivated new students, local LUMA centre working closely with the University of Jyväskylä generates different activities for kids aged 3 to 19, makes school outreaches and organizes yearly visits to the University. In addition, Department of Chemistry offers its two basic chemistry courses (environmental & biological chemistry) as free on-line courses for secondary schools and a laboratory course for the local upper secondary school students.

    Thursday, December 14, 14.30 h
    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy - direct chemical analysis of solid samples.
    The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) valuable tool for the determination of the composition of a solid sample. The highest advances of LIBS are firstly the minimal sample preparation and secondly fastness of measurement: takes less than 1 second obtain a spectrum from one spot. In practice, a high-power laser pulse is focused on to a sample and a small volume of the sample is ablated and a bright plasma plume is formed. Light emission from the atoms and ions in the plasma is collected with a spectrometer. As each element has a characteristic emission spectrum, the elemental composition at the measured spot can be deducted. With repetitive laser pulses 2D and 3D maps of elemental distributions can be easily constructed at a resolution of less than a micrometer in vertical (depth) and tens of micrometers in horizontal direction. LIBS is very sensitive in measuring also the light elements in the periodic table, i.e. sulfur, carbon and lithium and in University of Jyväskylä the detection range has been extended to the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and near infrared (NIR) spectral regions. The microLIBS approach using low irradiances of  0.1 GW/cm2 has been developed already in the 1990s, in order to construct maps of the spatial distributions of paper coating pigments. High resolution in the depth is needed to obtain representative sampling from the thin layers of different coatings and to effectively show the changes in the spreading of the coating pigments in varied industrial conditions. Recently, we have used LIBS to determine not only the elemental but also the mineralogical distribution of rock samples. A 2D map representing the mineralogy and geological texture can be used to discriminate and visualize rock in the macroscopic scale especially in the fine-grained areas, where the visual identification is not possible. The knowledge of the grain size and shape of the ore and gangue minerals is needed for the efficient for the beneficiation of the ore (grinding, enrichment, flotation etc). Also, the chemical variations in minerals can be readily detected with LIBS mapping.
    December 2017

    Dr. Giniyat Khaliullin (Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart, GERMANY)
    Soft-spins and Higgs mode in ruthenates
    Magnetism in transition-metal compounds has traditionally been associated with spin degrees of freedom, because the orbital magnetic moments are typically largely quenched. On the other hand, magnetic order in 4f- and 5d-electron systems arises from spin and orbital moments that are rigidly tied together by the large intra-atomic spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Using inelastic neutron scattering on the archetypal 4d-electron Mott insulator Ca2RuO4, we report a novel form of excitonic magnetism in the intermediate-strength regime of the SOC. The magnetic order is characterized by soft magnetic moments with large amplitude fluctuations manifested by an intense, low-energy excitonic mode analogous to the Higgs mode in particle physics. This mode heralds a proximate quantum critical point separating the soft magnetic order driven by the superexchange interaction from a quantum-paramagnetic state driven by the SOC. We further show that this quantum critical point can be tuned by lattice distortions, and hence may be accessible in epitaxial thin-film structures. The unconventional spin-orbital-lattice dynamics in Ca2RuO4 identifies the SOC as a novel source of quantum criticality in transition-metal compounds.
    December 2017

    prof. Naim Akhtar Khan (1 Université de Bourgogne, Dijon, FRANCE)
    Taste for fat: the 6th taste modality and obesity
    It has been well propounded that there exists five basic taste modalities, e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami. Recent compelling evidence from rodent and human studies raise the possibility for an additional sixth taste modality devoted to the perception of lipids. A number of studies have recently suggested that lingual CD36, a glycoprotein, mainly expressed by circumvallate papillae of the tongue, might be implicated in the perception of dietary fat taste.
    Our recent studies have not only supported the existence of the 6th taste modality, destined for the perception of fat, but also explored the intracellular signalling mechanisms, involved in this phenomenon. We have shown that lingual CD36, after activation by free fatty acids, induces increases in free intracellular calcium concentrations, ([Ca2+]i), phosphorylation of protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) and release of the neurotransmitters like serotonin and nor-adrenaline into synaptic clefts. This signalling cascade is likely responsible for physiologic responses, induced by the detection of lipids in the oral cavity. Our results may help understand the lipid-mediated regulation of feeding behaviour which is very critical in the development of several diseases like obesity and other metabolic disorders. Besides, the lingual CD36 might be a target for controlling feeding behavior of obese subjects.
    December 2017

    prof. Pavel Kroupa (German Observatory, Bonn, GERMANY)
    Dense systems and star clusters
    The lectures will cover theoretical dynamics problems of star clusters (collisionless Boltzmann equation, Jeans equations, phase-space distribution functions, two-body relaxation, mass segregation…). The formation and dynamical evolution will also be treated. The distribution functions of stars and binary systems and the implications for galaxies will be discussed if time permits.
    November 2017

    prof. Kinga Kutasi (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, HUNGARY)
    Application of low temperature plasmas in biomedicine and agriculture
    Low plasmas could provide the basis for a range of breakthrough medical technologies. Outside medicine, plasma is being investigated in food (extending shelf-life and decontamination) and in agriculture (treatment of plant disease and improving plant growth). Both plasma medicine and agriculture requires a cross-disciplinary approach engaging collaboration between electrical engineers, physicists, chemists, biologists, clinicians and farmers. The aim of the lecture is to provide a brief synopsis of some of the challenges and recent developments in applications of plasma in medicine and agriculture.
    October 2017

    Dr. Huimei Liu (Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart, GERMANY)
    Pseudospin exchange interactions in d7 cobalt compounds: Possible realization of the Kitaev model
    The current efforts to find the materials hosting Kitaev model physics have been focused on Mott insulators of d^5 pseudospin-1/2 ions Ir4+ and Ru3+ with t_2g^5(S=1/2, L=1) electronic configuration. Here we propose that the Kitaev model can be realized in materials based on d^7 ions with t_2g^5e_g^2(S=3/2, L=1) configuration such as Co2+, which also host the pseudospin-1/2 magnetism. Considering possible exchange processes, we have derived the d^7 pseudospin-1/2 interactions in 90deg bonding geometry. The obtained Hamiltonian comprises the bond-directional Kitaev K and isotropic Heisenberg J interactions as in the case of d^5 ions. However, we find that the presence of additional, spin-active e_g electrons radically change the balance between Kitaev and Heisenberg couplings. Most remarkably, we show that the exchange processes involving e_g spins are highly sensitive to whether the system is in Mott or charge-transfer insulating regime. In the latter case, to which many cobalt compounds do actually belong, the intiferromagnetic Heisenberg coupling J is strongly suppressed and spin-liquid phase can be stabilized. The results suggest cobalt based materials as promising candidates for the realization of Kitaev model.
    October 2017

    prof. Nadia Carmen Mösch-Zanetti (Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz, AUSTRIA)
    Applied Catalysis
    Synthesis of Re, Mo and W oxido complexes, coordinated by one or two functionalized ligands allowed for systematic investigation of the oxygen atom transfer (OAT) reactivity of such complexes towards different substrates. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses revealed different isomeric structures. All complexes were employed in three benchmark oxygen-atom-transfer (OAT) reactions, namely, the reduction of perchlorate, the epoxidation of cyclooctene, and OAT from dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to triphenylphosphane (PPh3), to assess the influence of the isomeric structure on the reactivity in these reactions. A significant differences in catalytic activity have been observed.
    October 2017

    Dr. Jeffrey Clark Nekola (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, USA)
    Statistical Dynamics of Macroecology
    This course will serve as a case study of how statistical and mathematical thinking is essential when searching for potential mechanism across not only macroecology but also ecology, biology, and all natural sciences. The aim of the course is to: 1. introduce major macroecological patterns / metrics; 2. discuss the standard disciplinary mechanisms proposed to underlie them; 3. document the universality of these patterns; 4. consider the potential ultimate causes of these patterns, including universal physical laws, mathematical logic, and statistical mechanics. Besides lectures, students will undertake a course project in which they investigate the potential universality of a given macroecological pattern by searching for analogs across non-ecological complex systems, including geology, climatology, astrophysics, economics, linguistics, and the arts, and then propose potential universal mechanisms that could be its cause. After course completion, students will be able to assess the likelihood that a given pattern is unlikely to provide useful insights into explicitly ecological process.
    November 2017

    prof. Jozef M. Pacyna (AGH University of Science and Technology, POLAND)
    Mercury as a Global Pollutant
    The state-of-the art of knowledge on atmospheric Hg emissions from anthropogenic sources worldwide, the long-range transport with air masses, and the environmental fate of mercury is presented. Results of global modelling of the Hg atmospheric transport are presented, as well as information on monitoring of this pollutant worldwide. The information about the likely synergy effects (co- benefits) of Hg emission reductions, current and new climate change polices and mitigation options in the future is also included. Reductions of Hg emission from anthropogenic sources worldwide would need to be introduced as soon as possible to assure lowering the adverse impact of mercury on human health. Science currently available, however, is not in the position to clearly answer whether global change of the environment, caused by various human activities, will increase or decrease the risk of exposure to Hg on a global scale. New research should therefore be undertaken to model the relationships between global change and Hg exposure.
    December 2017

    prof. Yutao Pei (University of Groningen, NETHERLAND)
    Monday, Sept. 11th, 10 – 12
    Tribology of protective thin films
    Tribology is the study of two or more surfaces moving relative to one another, a phenomenon that affects our lives in a multitude of ways every day. Generally, tribology includes 3 key topics: friction, wear and lubrication. Friction is the resistance to relative motion, wear is the loss of material due to the said motion, and lubrication is the use of a fluid (or in some cases a solid) to minimize friction and wear. The field is necessarily interdisciplinary and utilizes skills from physics, mechanical engineering, materials science and engineering, chemistry and chemical engineering and more. The lecture will introduce to the audience the topic of tribology, the measurement of tribological parameters and engineering of thin films for tribological applications.

    Tuesday, 12th, 10 – 12
    Dynamic smoothening/roughening of sputter deposited thin films
    Several new findings on the breakdown of dynamic roughening in thin film growth will be shown and discussed in the lecture. With increasing energy flux of concurrent ion impingement during pulsed DC sputtering, a transition from dynamic roughening to dynamic smoothening is observed in the growth behaviour of TiC/a-C nanocomposite films. The nanocomposite films show a negative growth exponent and ultra-smoothness (RMS roughness 0.2 nm at a film thickness of 1.5 m). A model is proposed to predict the evolution of surface roughness based on a linear equation of surface growth which contains two diffusivity parameters that control the atomic mobility along the growing outer surface.

    Flexible DLC films coated rubbers
    Dynamic rubber seals are major sources of friction of lubrication systems and bearings, which may take up to 70% of the total friction. The solution we present is to coat rubber with DLC thin films by which the coefficient of friction is reduced from above 1.5 to below 0.15. Coating rubber is very challenging because the film/coating must be flexible and strongly adhered to the surface. During the lecture a novel approach by depositing flexible DLC films on various rubbers via self-segmentation is presented and discussed. By making use of the substantial thermal mismatch between DLC film and rubber substrates a dense crack network forms in DLC films and contributes to flexibility. The size of film micro-segments can be tuned by varying the bias voltage of pulsed-DC plasma CVD, which governs the amplitude of the substrate temperature variation during deposition. An analytical model is presented predicting the crack spacing (equivalent to the size of film segments).
    September 2017

    prof. Mamas I. Prodromidis (University of Ioannina, GREECE)
    Analytical utility of “green” sparked metal nanoparticles modified screen printed electrodes
    This lecture deals with the effective electrode modification, through a simple sparking process, between a flat electrode substrate and a tip counter electrode. The concept is introduced by the development of various bismuth, tin, gold and mixed copper-nickel nanoparticles-modified graphite screen-printed electrodes (SPEs). SPEs were sparked with the corresponding metal or alloy tip electrode at 1.2 kV under atmospheric conditions. The effect of polarity and capacitance on the morphology of the sensing surfaces as well as the analytical utility of the sparked sensors for the determination of various analytes in real samples is presented. Sparking technique offers a facile and green approach for the development of highly sensitive metal nanoparticle-based electrodes, and a wide-scope of applicability in the development of metal-modified sensing surfaces.
    December 2017

    prof. Sebastien Puechmaille (University of Groningen, NETHERLAND)
    Thursday, October 26th
    Mechanisms of speciation and extinction: insights from a diverse Mammalian order (Bats)
    Bat speciation and extinction as evolutionary changes are the main goal of this lecture. Besides this topic, smaller part of the lecture concerns white-nose syndrome, a fungal disease which destroys bat populations in Europe as well as in North America.
    October 2017

    prof. Victoria de Los Angeles Martin Salvado (University of Girona, SPAIN)
    Tuesday, September 26th
    Biologically-based water reclamation systems.
    INNOQUA: an innovative bio-based modular water treatment system.
    Biologically based wastewater treatment systems, such as constructed wetlands and polishing ponds, which simulate the ability of natural ecosystems to attenuate pollution from water, constitute an attractive cost-effective and sustainable alternative to conventional wastewater treatment systems as they can be almost effective as advanced treatment systems with the advantage of generating ecologically rich effluents whilst eliminating certain pharmaceuticals. In order to understand the effect of vegetation in the removal of microcontaminants with different physicochemical properties and the combined role of vegetation, organic matter, microbial communities, and sunlight exposure in polishing ponds, laboratory-scale experiments were performed by using superior rooted aquatic plants, such as Lemna sp., and filamentous algae, such as Spirogyra sp. to characterize the removal processes of pharmaceutical products [1,2]. The aim of the granted INNOQUA project[3] is to develop and demonstrate an innovative, modular and sustainable wastewater treatment technology based on the combination of the purification capacity of certain biological organisms (earthworms, zooplankton and microalgae), sorption materials and alternatively sun light exposure. The core INNOQUA system consists of a first module, the Lumbrifilter, featuring primary/secondary treatment process based on the action of earthworms (Eisenia fetida and andrei) that digest organic matter and eliminate sludge production and its related environmental costs and a second module of secondary/tertiary treatment, the Daphniafilter, based on a biological filtration by means of filter feeder organisms, mainly daphnia magna and other cladocera, which improve the quality of the final effluent at very low cost and without the addition of chemicals[4]. This integrated solution, which aim is wastewater reuse, is particularly attractive for small communities and water stressed regions with a high water demand for either agriculture and/or the conservation of natural freshwater ecosystems. Moreover, cork, a lignocellulosic natural material, has demonstrated to be an effective sorbent for the removal of phenols and emerging contaminants from wastewaters and it is proposed as a cost effectiveness alternative to activated carbon.
    1) García-Rodríguez, A. Matamoros, V.; Fontàs, C.; Salvadó, V. Chemosphere 90 (2013) 2297–2302
    2) García-Rodríguez, A. Matamoros, V.; Fontàs, C.; Salvadó, V. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2015) 12:2327–2338
    3) http://innoqua-project.eu INNOQUA-H2020-WATER-2014-2015/H2020-WATER-2015-two-stage. Grant agreement 689817.
    4) Matamoros, V.; Sala, Ll.; Salvadó, V. Bioresource Technology 104 (2012) 243–249.
    September 2017

    Dr. Suzana Šegota (Ruđer Bošković Institute, Zagreb, CROATIA)
    Tuning the membrane elasticity by the ionic strength of surrounding media
    Biophysical behaviour of lipid membranes is of fundamental importance due to their role of flexible boundary which enables controlled exchange of information and energy between the cell interior and its environment [1]. Lipid membranes are also involved in a number of mechanical events such as cell adhesion, fusion, growth, and migration. Due to the high complexity of cellular membranes, model membranes such as liposomes and supported lipid bilayers (SLB) have been extensively used. How the lipid membrane properties like the surface potential, the dipole potential, the phase transitions and the structure and dynamics of lipid molecules in general are affected by the surrounding medium is to a great extent determined by the medium ionic composition [2]. The ion mixture effect in seawater, particularly the contribution of Mg2+ and Ca2+ as dominant divalent cations on the thermotropic phase behaviour and the nanomechanical response of DMPC as a model neutral (zwitterionic) lipid membrane have been studied by transmission IR spectroscopy and force spectroscopy. By considering both the electrostatic and the chemical equilibrium contributions, it has been shown that the membrane mechanical stability in seawater was unproportionally increased by the cooperative and competitive ion binding processes [3] in both the gel and the liquid phase. The correlation between the ionic strength and the ionic composition of the media with membrane mechanical stability helped us to emphasize the specific characteristics of SW as naturally occurring complex ion mixture. Finally an overview of the on-going investigations will be given with particular emphasis on the challenges and possible solutions the field of nanobiotechnology is faced with.
    [1] Šegota, S., Težak, Đ., 2006. Spontaneous formation of vesicles. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 121, 51–75.
    [2] Aroti, A., Leontidis, E., Dubois, M., Zemb, T., 2007. Effects of monovalent anions of the Hofmeister series on DPPC lipid bilayers. Part I: Swelling and in-plane equations of state. Biophysical Journal 93, 1580–1590.
    [3] Fukuma, T., Higgins, M. J., Jarvis, S. P., 2007. Direct imaging of lipid-ion network formation under physiological conditions by frequency modulation atomic force microscopy. Physical Review Letters 98, 106101-1–106101-4.
    November 2017

    Dr. Maria Schindler (Nationalpark Donau-Auen GmbH, AUSTRIA)
    20 years of the European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis) conservation in Austria
    The European Pond Terrapin, Emys orbicularis, is the only Chelonian species occurring in Central Europe, all other Euroepan tortoises and terrapins being restricted to the warmer Mediterranean area. The European pond terrapin is a highly endangered species in Austria. The only confirmed population is resident in the Donau Auen National Park and consists of a few hundred individuals. 1997 a conservation programme was initiated by the National Park in order to support the native stocks, to contain further releases of allochthonous turtles and to make the public aware of this sensitive topics. The scientific part of this programme covers ecological studies to optimise the basics of conservation management and genetic studies to distinguish autochthone and allochthone (released) turtles.
    November 2017

    prof. Sylvia Schnell (Justus-Liebig University Giessen, GERMANY)
    The relevance of microorganisms of the domain Archaea for biotechnology
    The domain Archaea is one of the three known domains of life on earth. Although members of the domain long known only 40 years ago Carl Woese and George E. Fox released that these microorganisms differ from bacteria in cell structure, biochemical pathway and cell regulation processes. Since this time the biochemistry and phylogenetic diversity of the archaea were study in more detail and only recently new phyla (Loki-, Verstraete-, Thor-, Odin- and Heimdallarchaeota) were discovered by metagenomic studies. The new phyla cluster to the superphyla “Asgard” whose member are not yet cultured but molecular studies showed that the cells affiliate with eukaryotes in phylogenomic analyses and their genomes are enriched for proteins formerly considered specific for eukaryotes. Beside the evolutionary scientific interest members of the Archaea are important in biotechnology processes and in the talk different biotechnologies will be shown with help of own research results and literature. Examples for the biotechnology benefit of Archaea are: Different enzymes of extremophile Archaea like the thermostable DNA polymases (Pfu) or enzymes for amylase, lactase or pullanases are cloned and used in biotechnology and food processing at high temperature. Methanogenic Archaea playing an important part in the anaerobic digestion and used in biogas plant for methane productions that can generate renewable energy. In the bioleaching of metals from sulfidic ores acidophilic Archaea (Sulfolobus) playing also an essential part solving metals like copper or nickel. Recently an antibiotic class (archaeocins) with new medical antibacterial properties was isolated from Haloarachaea and Solfolobus.
    October 2017

    prof. Eugen Stamate (Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, DENMARK)
    Applications of atmospheric pressure plasmas for bacterial inactivation and NOx reduction
    The ability of atmospheric cold plasmas to inactivate bacteria and spores is already used in several biomedical applications. UV radiation, charged particles, surface etching and the reactivity of plasma radicals are the main mechanisms considered to contribute to bacterial damage during plasma treatment. Microbial inactivation by an atmospheric pressure plasma is interesting as it has the potential to be obtained at moderate temperatures and with few chemical residues. These characteristics are relevant within the food sector and an atmospheric cold plasma may be used to reduce concentrations of micro-organisms on various fresh and lightly preserved products. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), including mainly CO2, N2 and O2 gases, is used increasingly for fresh and lightly preserved food products. This motivates the importance of being able to produce an atmospheric cold plasma inside a closed package and within a gas atmosphere with increased concentrations of CO2. Despite various studies of dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs), including the effect of the applied power and frequency, treatment time, the method of plasma generation (ac or pulse) and gas composition (particularly the presence of oxygen), there are very few reports on plasma treatments inside a closed package. This lecture concerns the production and evaluation of an Ar/CO2 plasma using a DBD at atmospheric pressure for the purpose of bacterial inactivation in MAP of cold smoked salmon (CSS) as an example of a non-cooked and lightly preserved fish product.
    High temperature combustion processes, present in engines for ground, air and water transportation systems as well as in small or large district power plants, result in emission of nitrogen oxides, NOx, usually with a higher fraction of nitric oxide, NO, than nitrogen dioxide, NO2. When present at low altitudes, as in congested traffic in large cities, NOx can have a direct negative impact on human health causing respiratory diseases. Being almost insoluble in water, both NO and NO2 reach the higher atmosphere where they get oxidized by ozone to produce dinitrogen pentoxide, N2O5, that is easily captured by water to produce nitric acid, HNO3, responsible for acid rains with a direct negative impact on the quality of soil and water. Despite of these negative consequences only a limited number of countries are imposing environmental regulations and taxes concerning NOx levels, a fact that is related to the unaffordable high costs for NOx removal technologies in most developing countries. For example, available technologies for NOx reduction include selective catalytic reduction, selective non-catalytic reduction (SCR), low-temperature oxidation (LTO) by ozone, non-thermal plasma, electron beam irradiation and several hybrid techniques. However, despite of this variety, none of these methods is free of limitations concerning the implementation. Additionally, the cost for removing 1 kg of NOx is, in most countries, higher than the cost for reduction, with about 2 Euro per kg of reduced NOx using SCR and double cost for reduction using ozone. The NOx oxidation method by ozone injection has several advantages compared with other techniques and has been, for example, the best candidate technology for biomass power plants where the presence of large particles and high humidity makes it difficult to use the SCR. Moreover, the ozone injection method keeps the plasma discharge clean and allows higher reduction rates comparative with direct ozone production in the oxidation reactor, where reverse reactions can reform NO and NO2 in the presence of O radicals. Despite of these positive points, the low temperature oxidation technique is still relatively expensive, a fact that requires further process optimization. This lecture presents measurements and simulations on NOx reduction by low temperature ozone injection taking also into account the role of the mixing scheme and steep temperature gradients.
    Thin films for energy conversion and storage devices: status and perspective
    The rapid consumption of fossil fuels led to a fast development that can be sustained only by creating environmentally friendly energy sources of higher efficiency. Solar cells, fuel cells, batteries and thermoelectric generators are among the most investigated energy devices. Being built in a multilayer layer structure these devices are requiring complex and performant materials with precisely tuned interfaces. The high demand on functionality for bulk, surface or nanostructured materials resulted in a very large number of synthesis methods where the dry processing based on plasma plays a very important role. This lecture presents examples where thin films produced by plasma-assisted processes can help to improve the device properties of solid oxide fuel cells, all-solid-state batteries and transparent conductive oxides for solar cells.
    The requirements for a good electrolyte used in all-solid-state batteries include high ionic conductivity, low electronic conductivity, homogeneous morphology, electrochemical stability and good adhesion with the electrode materials. Lithium phosphorous oxynitride (Lipon) is one of the most promising materials but its ionic conductivity needs to be improved. So far, optimal deposition parameters have been obtained but the conduction mechanism allowing further improvements is not known. Our results show that nitrogen dissociation and proper ion energy at the substrate are key parameters to obtain high quality films of Lipon.
    Recently, perovskite type oxides such as Sr0.94Ti 0.9Nb0.1O3 (STN) have been extensively studied for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells. When pure STN is used as anode, the electrochemical reactions are confined to the electrode/electrolyte interfaces forming a three phase boundary of which length plays a crucial role in improving the anode performance. Our results show that the boundary can be significantly improved by incorporating Pd nanoparticles through a metal functional layer of about 20 nm.
    Transparent conductive oxides are essential in many optoelectronic applications including solar cells. Thin doped indium oxide is intensively used. However, due to limited abundance it needs to be replaced and one of the main candidates is doped ZnO. Magnetron plasma sputtering can be a cost effective method for depositing Al doped ZnO but the film uniformity is spoiled by the energetic negative ions of oxygen released mainly at the erosion tracks. In this context, our effort is concentrated in understanding the role of negative ions during the film growth.
    November 2017

    prof. Daniel Ševčović (FMFI Bratislava, SLOVAKIA)
    Nonlinear evolutionary partial differential equations, theory, methods and their applications in financial mathematics
    1. Lecture: Linear evolutionary equations.
    Motivation and examples pf linear and nonlinear parabolic evolutionary equations. Heat equation. Properties of the Green function and the heat kernel. Analytic semigroup theory. Sectorial operators, fractional power spaces and semigroup decay estimates. Smoothing and comparison principles.

    2. Lecture: Semilinear and quasilinear evolutionary equations.
    Non-homogeneous equations and abstract variation of constants formula. Semilinear equations, existence and uniqueness of solutions and their qualitative properties. Banach fixed point theorem and it application in the proof of existence and uniqueness of solutions. A-priori estimates of solutions.

    3. Lecture: Nonlinear evolutionary equations in applications
    Linear and nonlinear parabolic equations arising in mathematical finance. Nonlinear generalizations of the Black-Scholes equation for option pricing. Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation arising in stochastic dynamic optimal control problems.

    4. Lecture: Numerical methods for solving evolutionary equations and applications in financial mathematics
    Finite difference and finite volume methods for solving linear and nonlinear evolutionary parabolic equations. Semi-implicit method for solving Black-Scholes equation. Direct and transformation methods for solving Hamilton-Jacobi-Belman equation. Applications of numerical methods in option pricing and optimal portfolio selection problems.
    October 2017

    prof. Manuel Malmagro Valiente (University Autonoma of Barcelona, SPAIN)
    Characterization of Selenium Enrichment in Plants by Synchrotron Techniques to Develop Functional Foods
    Being wheat a major source of dietary intake of Selenium in humans, it is mandatory to assure Selenium appropriate intake because of its need for vital enzymes. Also, Se antioxidant role has resulted in the biofortification of agro-practices in Se deficient areas. Control of Se uptake, metabolism, translocation and accumulation in plants is important to decrease health risk of toxicity and deficiency and to help selecting adequate methods for biofortification. In this concern, Selenium chemical forms, in particular produced Selenoaminoacids are the key for health properties.
    Selenate and Selenite, the main inorganic Se forms available in soil, behave differently. Thus, Selanate is taken up faster and interferes with selenite uptake and transport, having a dual effect on wheat plants [1].
    The present study deals with the characterization of selenium species, including selenoanimoacids, produced under different conditions of the inorganic Selenium in the nutrient solution and how these conditions influence Se species along the plant and in the grain. The work includes the hydroponic cultivation of wheat plants under different Se(IV)/Se(VI) conditions of the nutrient solution. Selected samples of the plants have been analyzed to ascertain Selenium speciation by direct observation using Synchrotron light source techniques. Conventional HPLC-MS methods have been employed to confirm the obtained results. Remarkable differences on the obtained chemical species have been observed along the plant for the indicated different nutrient conditions. In particular, a mapping of the grain will be presented where the non-homogeneous distribution of the selenium species is clearly depicted.

    [1] Guerrero, M.Llugany, O.Palacios, M.Valiente. Dual effects of different selenium species on wheat. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 83, 300 (2014).
    October 2017

    Dr. Daniel Villeneuve (United States Environmental Protection Agency, Minnesota, USA)
    Adverse Outcome Pathways - Development and Applications
    The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework was developed as a means for organizing biological and toxicological knowledge concerning the linkages between molecular-level perturbations of biological systems by stressors and the apical hazards (e.g., disease in humans, reduced survival, growth, reproduction in wildlife) that can result. As such, the AOP framework can help support greater use of mechanistic or pathway-based data in risk assessment and regulatory decision-making. The formal description of AOPs is guided by five principles of AOP development as well as weight of evidence considerations that are used to evaluate the scientific basis for, and limitations of, inference between different biological events along the pathway. Knowledge, organized via the AOP framework, is disseminated through a publically accessible, AOP knowledgebase (the AOP-Wiki; aopwiki.org). The AOP-Wiki is designed to facilitate efficient, crowd-sourced, AOP development and evaluation that is searchable, accessible, and transparent to users world-wide. The principles and practice of AOP development and evaluation will be presented using real-world examples, and potential applications of AOPs in a wide variety of environmental decision-making contexts will be discussed.
    Daniel L. Villeneuve is a research toxicologist with the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Research and Development (ORD). Dr. Villeneuve serves as Project Lead for a cross-ORD research program focused on the development and application of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs). He has over 20 years of experience conducting freshwater ecotoxicology research and has been recognized with 17 US EPA Scientific and Technological Achievement Awards, three Bronze Medal awards, and is a US National Academy of Sciences and Kavli Foundation Fellow. Dr. Villeneuve has authored or co-authored over 160 peer-reviewed papers in the field of ecotoxicology and serves as an associate editor of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry and an international expert advisor on Molecular Screening and Toxicogenomics to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).
    November 2017

    Dr. Catalin Vitelaru (National Institute for Optoelectronics - ReCAST Center, ROMANIA)
    Laser based diagnostics in magnetron sputtering discharges:
    Part 1: Basic principles and application to steady state discharges
    Part2 : Temporal and spatial description of HiPIMS

    The magnetron discharge has become a common tool for the deposition of various types of thin films, either in inert or reactive environment. Although many applications are already industrialized and well known, the continuous development of new materials and new technologies to produce them makes it important to develop the appropriate tools for the characterization of the magnetron process. The special characteristics of the magnetron configuration, namely the crossed electric and magnetic field, coupled with the presence of sputtered species that may condense on any surface placed inside the plasma volume, makes it difficult to realize complex diagnostics without perturbing the plasma and/or the deposition process.
    Among the non-invasive techniques that can be used the laser spectroscopy is one of the most offering, being commonly used in plasma diagnostics for measuring particle density and temperature, through the absorption profile, or velocity distribution functions through the Doppler shifted laser induced fluorescence profiles, respectively. The development of solid diode lasers, in terms of available wavelengths and tunability, permits nowadays to perform experimental investigations on a large variety of atoms and molecules, present in different types of plasmas. The main advantage of the solid diode lasers is their very broad line width, typically around 10 MHz if placed in an external optical cavity, which offers a very high spectral resolution. During the lecture the basic principles of both Tunable Diode-Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TD-LAS) and Tunable Diode-Laser Induced Fluorescence (TD-LIF) will be presented, focusing on their specific use, advantages and limitations, for the characterization of magnetron discharges. The use of TD-LAS technique will be illustrated for evaluating the spatial variations of the atom density and temperature, as well as the influence of different parameters such as gas pressure, discharge current etc. The use of TD-LIF technique on the other hand will be illustrated to describe the velocity distribution functions of sputtered metal atoms with mm scale space resolution.
    The second part of the lecture will be dedicated to the development and use of techniques to be implemented in time evolving discharges, such as HIPIMS (High power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering). Due to the specific time characteristics, ranging from microseconds range during the pulse up to milliseconds in the afterglow, different approaches are necessary to characterize the temporal behavior. Both temporal and spatial description of the HIPIMS discharge, from the perspective of sputtered atoms, argon metastable and Oxygen atoms metastable will be presented and discussed.
    3 - 6. October 2017

    Dr. Richard Wirth (GFZ Potsdam, GERMANY)
    Applications of FIB-TEM in Geosciences
    Site-specific sample preparation of electron transparent foils for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using focused ion beam (FIB) technique was introduced approximately 20 years ago. This development allowed a much wider application of TEM in Geosciences. This technique provided access to micro- and nanoinclusions in minerals such as diamond. The results from TEM studies on inclusions in diamond gave new insights in the formation of diamond. The nanoinclusions in diamond indicate the growth medium diamond has nucleated and grown, whereas the larger microinclusions represent the mantle environment where diamond has grown.
    FIB/TEM studies have been applied to metamorphic and magmatic rocks studying exolution features, phase transformations, structure of grain and phase boundaries unmixing of melts, and early stages of crystallization. That technique has been successfully applied to Geobiology e.g. coccoliths and foraminifers. Another important application of FIB/TEM is demonstrated with samples from ore deposits such as PMG from Bushveld and other locations. Processing of ore, especially ores with PGE, it is important to know whether the PGE are incorporated in the crystal structure or whether they form mineral inclusions in a host mineral. That question can be answered with FIB/TEM technique.
    However, modern FIB systems that combine FIB with SEM provide some additional valuable techniques for studies in Geosciences. FIB systems can be used for EBSD studies with high special resolution. Another application is 3D imaging (tomography) with very high special resolution. Questions about distribution of porosity, connectivity of porosity, distribution of organic material in sedimentary rocks can be answered with that technique.
    Last but not least FIB systems can be used as tools for sample preparation not only for TEM but also for FT-IR, Brillouin spectroscopy and recovery of DAC experiments.
    The presentation shall provide an overview of the state of the art application of FIB/TEM in Geosciences.
    December 8th, 2017

    prof. Jakob Wirz (University of Basel, SWITZERLAND)
    Guidelines for the prediction of photochemical reactions
    Computer programs are helpful to suggest synthetic pathways to desired compounds, but less so to predict photoreactions. Modern quantum chemical methods provide both structures and remarkably accurate energies of electronically excited molecules and can offer valuable predictions of their reactivity. While these methods may be able to answer a given question, they are black boxes that hardly provide any guidelines for the chemist’s intuition to ask the right questions. This talk will summarize some simple guidelines that can be used to predict photochemical reactions of organic compounds. Moreover, methods to establish the mechanisms of photoreactions will be discussed.
    October 2017

    prof. Dmitri Zaitsev (Trinity College Dublin, IRELAND)
    Geometry meets subelliptic multiplier ideals
    In this special course we aim to give an accessible introduction into the part of interaction of CR Geometry of boundaries of domains in complex manifolds with the techniques of Subelliptic Multiplier Ideals going back to the foundational work of J.J. Kohn. The subject has recently attracted new attention due to the Y.-T. Siu’s ideas on how to extend the techniques to more general Partial Differential Equations.
    The course will begin by an excursion through basic concepts of CR Geometry. Then we will go through the Kohn’s construction in different flavours and see its CR geometric meaning. We will then formulate some major open questions and conjectures due to J.J. Kohn and D’Angelo, and give an introduction into the programm of Y.-T. Siu addressing those conjectures.
    In bypassing, I will also explain my recent work with S.Y. Kim dealing with the first nontrivial situation of the effectivity in Kohn’s algorithm, where some of the difficulties can be easily high-lighted. Then our solution based on the new method of jet vanishing orders, generalising the finite type approach, will be presented.
    If time permits, I will also discuss the central result on local regularity of the d-bar Neumann problem due to D. Catlin, illustrating main difficulties and providing some geometric intuition into this area, otherwise dominated by mostly analytic methods.
    Finally, I the techniques and problems will be linked with some recent progress in CR Geometry, including my joint work with M. Kolar and F. Meylan and with I. Kossovskiy.
    September + October 2017

Metody hodnocení
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Angličtina
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Nahoru | Aktuální datum a čas: 15. 8. 2018 00:04, 33. (lichý) týden

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