G6101 Methods of laboratory research of minerals and rocks

Faculty of Science
Autumn 2019
Extent and Intensity
3/1/0. 5 credit(s). Type of Completion: zk (examination).
Mgr. Dalibor Všianský, Ph.D. (lecturer)
Mgr. Pavel Pracný, Ph.D. (lecturer)
Guaranteed by
Mgr. Dalibor Všianský, Ph.D.
Department of Geological Sciences - Earth Sciences Section - Faculty of Science
Contact Person: doc. Mgr. Martin Ivanov, Dr.
Supplier department: Department of Geological Sciences - Earth Sciences Section - Faculty of Science
Tue 12:00–14:50 G2,02003, Tue 15:00–15:50 G2,02003
Prerequisites (in Czech)
! G6100 Methods of laboratory research && ! G6101k Methods of laboratory research && ! NOW ( G6101k Methods of laboratory research ) && ( (!( PROGRAM ( B - GE )|| PROGRAM ( D - GE4 )|| PROGRAM ( N - GE )|| PROGRAM ( D - GE )|| PROGRAM ( C - CV ))) || ( NOW ( G0101 Occupational healt and safety )&& NOW ( C7777 Handling chemicals )))
Course Enrolment Limitations
The course is also offered to the students of the fields other than those the course is directly associated with.
fields of study / plans the course is directly associated with
there are 32 fields of study the course is directly associated with, display
Course objectives
The course provides students of the Bachelor program with basic knowledge and skills in laboratory research of rocks and minerals. The course focuses on basic operations (sampling and sample treatment, mineral separation), chemical methods (wet silicate analysis) and instrumental analyses (electron microscopy, electron microprobe, spectral methods in gamma, X-ray, UV, VIS, IR range, electrochemical and chromatographic methods) of rock samples. The course involves lab practicals.
Learning outcomes
After the course, students will be able to: determine error in a dataset of measurements;
analyse results of a given method;
devise a sampling procedure for a given problem;
compare suitability of various methods depending on the problem.
  • Sampling and sample treatment: Sampling of rocks and minerals in the field, technical tools. Optimum sample size, representativeness. Criteria for the choice of suitable analytical methods (purpose, price, sensitivity, required sample size). Sample preparation for analysis - crushing, sieving, homogenisation. Mineral separation techniques: gravitational (panning, heavy liquid separation), magnetic (with permanent magnet, electromagnetic). Elutriation (Stokes' law, Kopecký's elutriator), flotation. Hand picking. Preparation of thin and polished sections.

    Macroscopic determination of mineral and rock properties: subjective colour scale, hardness, scratch, smell, cleavage, fluorescence, radioactivity. Density measurement. Refractive index measurement. Mineral luminescence, radioactivity, radiographic methods.

    X-ray methods: Theoretical basics (Bragg's equation). Powder method, difractometer arrangement. Specimen preparation. Evaluation of X-ray patterns - qualitative analysis, phase identification. Quantitative phase analysis (RIR, internal standard method). Determination of lattice parameters, Rietveld's refinement method. Monocrystal methods. The possibilities of X-ray data usage.

    Thermal methods: Differential thermal analysis - method principles, thermal reactions of minerals, instrumentation. Interpretation of DTA and TG patterns, qualitative and quantitative analysis. Differential calorimetry, dilatometry, thermoluminiscence, decrepitometry. Examples of application of thermal methods in geology.

    Electron microscopy Basics of scanning and transmission electron microscope, imaging modes. Electron diffraction. Image analysis.

    Electron microanalysis Wavelength-dispersive method, energy-dispersive method. Less common microanalytical methods (ion microprobe, laser ablation probe). X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Chemical analysis: Analytical error, accuracy and rightness of the results, relative and absolute error, relative and absolute error, systematic, random and gross error, normal distribution of random errors, standard deviation, error propagation, confidence interval. Classification of analytical methods, their applicability. Choice of appropriate method, direct and indirect methods, analytical costs.

    Classical methods: Gravimetric methods, precipitation, filtration, decanting, examples of usage (determination of SiO2, S), typical analytical error. Volumetric methods, titration, titration agent, indicators, examples of usage (complexometric determination of Ca, Mg, Al, oxidimetric determination of Fe, acidimetric determination of SiO2), typical analytical error. Separation methods, extraction, ion exchangers.

    Instrumental methods. Classification (optical - spectral, non-spectral, electrochemical, chromatographic), usage, typical errors, evaluation in relative methods (calibration curve, standard addition, inner standard method).

    Emission spectral methods Spectrum formation (radio-wave, micro-wave, far-, near- and medium infrared, ultraviolet, X-ray, gamma-ray range), possible uses, methods (emission spectrography, flame photometry, emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma, neutron activation analysis).

    Absorption spectral methods: Formation of absorption spectra, Lambert-Beer law, methods (vibration spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, infrared spectrometry), possible uses, typical instrumental arrangement.

    Electrochemical and chromatographic methods: Electrochemical potentials, pH measurement, ion-selective electrodes; polarography. Chromatography, instrumental arrangement, mobile and stationary phase, gas- and liquid chromatography, appplication, advantages, errors.

    required literature
  • FAIMON, Jiří. Základní metody analytické geochemie. VŠ skripta, 1. vyd. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 1992. 147 s. ISBN 80-210-0498-3. info
Teaching methods
lectures, laboratory excercises
Assessment methods
2 written tests, final test
Language of instruction
Further comments (probably available only in Czech)
The course is taught once in two years.
Information on the per-term frequency of the course: Bude otevřen v podzimním semestru 2019/2020.
The course is also listed under the following terms Autumn 2007 - for the purpose of the accreditation, Autumn 2002, Autumn 2003, Autumn 2004, Autumn 2005, Autumn 2006, Autumn 2007, Autumn 2009, Autumn 2011, Autumn 2011 - acreditation, Autumn 2013, Autumn 2015, autumn 2017.
  • Enrolment Statistics (recent)
  • Permalink: https://is.muni.cz/course/sci/autumn2019/G6101