NAHODILOVÁ, Iveta. Characteristics and growth of Photorhabdus luminescens, the bacteria associated with entomopathogenic nematodes. In Kostelecké inspirování. 2019. ISBN 978-80-213-2981-2.
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Basic information
Original name Characteristics and growth of Photorhabdus luminescens, the bacteria associated with entomopathogenic nematodes
Authors NAHODILOVÁ, Iveta (203 Czechia, guarantor, belonging to the institution).
Edition Kostelecké inspirování, 2019.
Other information
Original language English
Type of outcome Conference abstract
Field of Study 10606 Microbiology
Country of publisher Czechia
Confidentiality degree is not subject to a state or trade secret
RIV identification code RIV/00216224:14310/19:00111453
Organization unit Faculty of Science
ISBN 978-80-213-2981-2
Keywords (in Czech) Photorhabdus luminescens; patogenní bakterie; Heterorhabditis bacteriophora; entomopatogenní hlístice; patogen hmyzu; bioluminiscence; fázová variace
Keywords in English Photorhabdus luminescens; pathogenic bacteria; Heterorhabditis bacteriophora; entomopathogenic nematodes; insect pathogen; bioluminescence; phase variant
Tags International impact
Changed by Changed by: Bc. Iveta Nahodilová, učo 236273. Changed: 25. 11. 2019 22:19.
Abstract
Photorhabdus luminescens are gram-negative bacteria of the family Morganellaceae, which live symbiotically in the gut of entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. These bacteria are nonpathogenic to nematodes, but they are lethal pathogen of insect. When the nematodes penetrate into the insect body through the digestive system or by disrupting the cuticule, they begin to consciously release bacteria into the haemocoel and together cause its death by producing toxins and other substances inhibiting host immunity. Bacteria also produce enzymes, which break down the insect host body; subsequently both of them can receive nutrients for their proliferation in the insect cadaver. In order to complete this cycle, the bacteria then enter the nematode juveniles as they develop. Nematodes are not only bound to the host, but can also live in a humid soil. P. luminescens forms two phases which are genetically identical, but morphologically different. Cells of Phase I are known as the pathogenic ones which are associated with infective juveniles. They absorb dye from agar media, produce pigments, antibiotic substances, toxins, lipase, protease or lectins and they are also bioluminescent. Phase II cells lose most of these abilities. They could not produce many substances and do not show any light emission. However, they also product pigments but not as strongly as Phase I cells. We can distinguish these phases on special agar medium - MacConkey and NBTA agar. Phase I absorb crystal violet from MacConkey agar and cells are deeply red here. Cells of Phase II are usually very pale or pink here because they could not absorb any dye. Similarly, on NBTA agar Phase I cells could absorb bromothymol blue, thus it appears blue or green and Phase II cells are characterized by red color. To verify the phase we measured the plates in a luminometer. Also growth of these bacteria was measured in a luminometer and the level of emitted light increased with the optical density.
Abstract (in Czech)
Photorhabdus luminescens are gram-negative bacteria of the family Morganellaceae, which live symbiotically in the gut of entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. These bacteria are nonpathogenic to nematodes, but they are lethal pathogen of insect. When the nematodes penetrate into the insect body through the digestive system or by disrupting the cuticule, they begin to consciously release bacteria into the haemocoel and together cause its death by producing toxins and other substances inhibiting host immunity. Bacteria also produce enzymes, which break down the insect host body; subsequently both of them can receive nutrients for their proliferation in the insect cadaver. In order to complete this cycle, the bacteria then enter the nematode juveniles as they develop. Nematodes are not only bound to the host, but can also live in a humid soil. P. luminescens forms two phases which are genetically identical, but morphologically different. Cells of Phase I are known as the pathogenic ones which are associated with infective juveniles. They absorb dye from agar media, produce pigments, antibiotic substances, toxins, lipase, protease or lectins and they are also bioluminescent. Phase II cells lose most of these abilities. They could not produce many substances and do not show any light emission. However, they also product pigments but not as strongly as Phase I cells. We can distinguish these phases on special agar medium - MacConkey and NBTA agar. Phase I absorb crystal violet from MacConkey agar and cells are deeply red here. Cells of Phase II are usually very pale or pink here because they could not absorb any dye. Similarly, on NBTA agar Phase I cells could absorb bromothymol blue, thus it appears blue or green and Phase II cells are characterized by red color. To verify the phase we measured the plates in a luminometer. Also growth of these bacteria was measured in a luminometer and the level of emitted light increased with the optical density.
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