Bi1110 Biology of animal cell

Faculty of Science
Spring 2022
Extent and Intensity
2/0/0. 2 credit(s) (plus extra credits for completion). Type of Completion: zk (examination).
prof. RNDr. Jan Vondráček, Ph.D. (lecturer)
Mgr. Karel Souček, Ph.D. (lecturer)
prof. Mgr. Vítězslav Bryja, Ph.D. (lecturer)
Guaranteed by
prof. Mgr. Vítězslav Bryja, Ph.D.
Department of Experimental Biology - Biology Section - Faculty of Science
Contact Person: prof. RNDr. Jan Vondráček, Ph.D.
Supplier department: Department of Experimental Biology - Biology Section - Faculty of Science
Course Enrolment Limitations
The course is also offered to the students of the fields other than those the course is directly associated with.
fields of study / plans the course is directly associated with
Course objectives
The goal of this course is to enable students to understand and explain the nature of basic processes taking place within animal cells, and to correctly interpret their significance for physiological processes in animal tissues, organs and whole organism. In particular, student will understand the basic structures and processes underlying physiological functions of animal cell.
Learning outcomes
At the end of the course, students will be able to: describe basic structural features of animal cell, their dynamics and compartmentalization; describe protein synthesis and basic principles of protein life cycle and protein transport; define and describe basic principles of energetic metabolism of animal cell; describe structure, function and dynamics of membrane structures of animal cell; describe principles of building up intercellular junctions, cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix, including principles in intracellular transport and cell migration; describe basic principles of signaling at plasmatic membrane level and intracellular signaling; define and describe mechanisms underlying life cycle of animal cell – principles of cell proliferation, differentiation and programmed cell death.
  • 1) STRUCTURE OF ANIMAL CELLS: basic overview of structural features of animal cells, with a particular focus on dynamics of specialized cell structures and cell compartmentalization; specialized types of animal cells; overview of specialized cell organelles important for physiological regulations.
  • 2) CELL NUCLEUS AND ITS DYNAMICS: basic overview of structure of cell nucleus and chromatin; communication of nuclear structures and other organelles; variability of nucleus in animal cells.
  • 3) LIFE CYCLE OF PROTEINS: basic principles of protein life cycle and the mechanisms regulating the dynamics of these processes; post-translational modifications of proteins important for cell metabolism, cell proliferation, differentiation and immediate responses of cells to environment; possibilities for manipulation of protein synthesis, intracellular localization and degradation; physiological implications of deregulation of protein synthesis and degradation.
  • 4) CELLULAR METABOLISM: basic pathways of energetic metabolism of cells and the dynamic nature of their regulation - glycolysis, citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, pentose phosphate cycle, gluconeogenesis, synthesis and degradation of glycogen, synthesis and degradation of fatty acids within the context of animal cell; mitochondrial metabolism and its regulation at the cellular level; structure and dynamics of mitochondria; metabolic pathways in specialized cell types and in pathology.
  • 5) THE ROLE OF CELL MEMBRANES NA DLIPID CONSTITUENTS OF ANIMAL CELLS: general principles of regulation of formation and recycling of cell membranes; specialized membrane structures including membrane microdomains and lipid rafts; fusion of organelles and membrane structures; specialized membrane types in animal cells; dynamics of lipid synthesis and degradation.
  • 6) INTERCELLULALR JUNCTIONS IN ANIMAL CELLS: principles of formation of intercellular junctions important for structure of animal tissues and organs and their functions; dynamics of changes of intercellular junctions important for intercellular communication and cell polarization.
  • 7) EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, CYTOSKELETON AND THEIR MUTUAL COMMUNICATION: specialized proteins and other macromolecules important for formation of specific animal tissues and organs - their structure, formation, degradation and mechanical properties; mechanisms regulating life cycle of proteins contributing to formation of extracellular matrix; animal cell movement vs. motility and invasivity.
  • 8) SIGNALIZATION AT CELL MEMBRANES: overview of basic types of membrane receptors; mechanisms directing their synthesis, localization and degradation; signaling pathways controlling embryonic development of animals; signaling pathways regulating cell differentiation.
  • 9) INTRACELLULAR SUGNALIZATION: basic principles of signal transduction; mechanisms of specific signaling pathways important for synthesis and signaling of hormones, growth regulators and cytokines; signaling pathways controlling metabolism at the levels of cell and whole organism.
  • 10) REGULATION OF CELL CYCLE AND CELL PROLIFERATION: basic principles of cell cycle regulation; signaling pathways controlling growth of animal cells; dynamics of processes regulating cell cycle; integration of signaling from neighboring cells and ECM, growth factors, cytokines and additional regulators of cell proliferation vs. mechanism controlling integrity of DAN and mitotic apparatus; cell cycle in specialized animal cell types.
  • 11) LIFE CYCLE OF ANIMAL CELL – DIFFERENTIAITON AND CELL DEATH: cell differentiation – stem, progenitor and differentiated cells in animal organism; processes controlling differentiation of specialized cell populations; cellular senescence; cell death and consequences of its deregulation for developmental disruptions and pathology.
    recommended literature
  • ALBERTS, Bruce. Základy buněčné biologie : úvod do molekulární biologie buňky. Translated by Arnošt Kotyk. 2. vyd. Ústí nad Labem: Espero Publishing, 2004. xxvi, 630. ISBN 8090290620. info
  • ALBERTS, Bruce, Alexander JOHNSON, Julian LEWIS, David Owen MORGAN, Martin C. RAFF, Keith ROBERTS and Peter WALTER. Molecular biology of the cell. Edited by John H. Wilson - Tim Hunt. Sixth edition. New York, NY: Garland Science, 2014. xxxiv, 134. ISBN 9780815344322. info
  • Cell physiology :source book. Edited by E. Kaneshiro. 4th ed. San Diego: Academic Press, 2012. ISBN 9780123877383
Teaching methods
Assessment methods
Written test. The test consists of approximately 20 questions, each one merits maximum 3 points. The accuaracy of answers is controlled by lecturers. At least 60 % of points is needed to pass the exam.
Language of instruction
Follow-Up Courses
Further comments (probably available only in Czech)
The course is taught annually.
The course is taught: every week.
Information on course enrolment limitations: Na předmět se vztahuje povinnost registrace; bez registrace může být znemožněn zápis předmětu!
The course is also listed under the following terms Spring 2017, spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021.
  • Enrolment Statistics (Spring 2022, recent)
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