Bi8780 Insect systematics and phylogeny

Faculty of Science
Spring 2021
Extent and Intensity
4/0/0. 4 credit(s) (plus extra credits for completion). Type of Completion: zk (examination).
Teacher(s)
Mgr. Igor Malenovský, Ph.D. (lecturer)
prof. Mgr. Stanislav Pekár, Ph.D. (lecturer)
Guaranteed by
prof. Mgr. Stanislav Pekár, Ph.D.
Department of Botany and Zoology - Biology Section - Faculty of Science
Contact Person: Mgr. Igor Malenovský, Ph.D.
Supplier department: Department of Botany and Zoology - Biology Section - Faculty of Science
Prerequisites
Bi1030 Inverteb. phylog. & divers. &&( Bi6760 Entomology ||( NOW ( Bi6760 Entomology )))
We recommend completion or parallel registration of the Bi6760 "Entomology" course, all students interested in insects are, however, welcome.
Course Enrolment Limitations
The course is also offered to the students of the fields other than those the course is directly associated with.
fields of study / plans the course is directly associated with
Course objectives
The course provides a review on insect (Hexapoda) systematics and phylogeny. It is structured into 13 lessons, each including presentations of one to several insect orders. Particularly, each taxon is characterised by diagnostic morphological characters and synapomorphies, its hypothetic phylogenetic relationships to other insect groups are discussed, and ecology, diversity and internal classification specified based on the world fauna and with a particular reference to the fauna of the Czech Republic. In comparison with the basic courses Bi1030 Invertebrate phylogeny and diversity and Bi2140+Bi4360 Field practice in zoology, the course Insect systematics and phylogeny provides a closer and deeper look at insects with more details. Its concept is build mainly on theoretical lectures combined with presentations of a synoptic insect collection and special literature. It is recommended to follow Bi0055 Field course in entomology in parallel, and/or Bi8763 Identification of terrestrial invertebrates - lab course, which enable demonstrations of a large amount of insect taxa directly in the field and provide practical identification workshops for selected taxa, respectively. Another complementary course is B9790 Advanced entomology which provides a broader general context on insect evolution and ecology.
Learning outcomes
At the end of this course, students will be able to:
- understand and explain current and historical classifications of insects and discuss insect systematics from a phylogenetic viewpoint;
- integrate basic morphological, taxonomical and ecological characteristics of all individual insect orders;
- to use this information for practical identification of insects;
- to use and interpret names of insect taxa in his/her diploma thesis, publications, etc., correctly.
Syllabus
  • 1. Hexapoda, synapomorphies of the group, phylogenetic relations within Arthropoda, Tracheata (Atelocerata) and Pancrustacea (Tetraconata) hypotheses. The oldest preserved fossils of hexapods. History of systematic classification of insects, current hypotheses on the phylogeny, classification of Hexapoda orders.
  • 2. Class Entognatha: synapomorphies, phylogeny. Order Collembola (springtails): synapomorphies, morphology, development, indirect sperm transfer, anhydrobiosis, ecomorphosis, biology, diversity, phylogeny and classification, suborders Poduromorpha, Entomobryomorpha, Symphypleona, examples of species in the Czech fauna. Order Protura (proturans): synapomorphies, morphology, development, ecology, diversity, phylogeny and classification. Order Diplura (diplurans): synapomorphies, morphology, ecology, diversity, phylogeny and classification, suborders Campodeina and Japygina, Czech fauna.
  • 3. Class Ectognatha (insects), synapomorphies, morphology of mouthparts, antenna, legs, ovipositor, terminal filament. Order Archaeognatha (bristletails): morphology, ground plan of insect genitalia, ecology, diversity. Dicondylia: synapomorphies, mandibles. Order Zygentoma (silverfish): morphology, ecology, diversity, Czech fauna, phylogenetic placement of Tricholepidion gertschi.
  • 4. Pterygota (winged insects): synapomorogies, structure of wing base, basal phylogenetic relations within Pterygota: Palaeoptera, Metapterygota and Chiastomyaria hypotheses, problems of interpretation of morphological and molecular characters. Superorder Odonatoptera: fossil orders Geroptera and Odonatoptera, recent Odonata (dragonflies): synapomorphies, evolution of wing venation, structure of adult and nymphal bodies, direct flight muscles, structure of primary and secondary copulatory organs, copulatory behaviour, development, ecology and bioindication potential of dragonflies, diversity of recent world fauna, phylogeny, suborders Zygentoma and Epiprocta, infraorders Epiophlebioptera and Anisoptera, Czech fauna of dragonflies, review of families and selected species occurring in the Czech Republic. Extinct superorder Palaeodictyopterida, orders Palaeodictyoptera, Megasecoptera and Diaphanopterodea. Order Ephemeroptera (mayflies): synapomorphies, structure of adult and nymphal body, subimaginal stage, egg, eco-morphological types of nymphs and their movement, reproduction and development, nourishment, respiration, phylogeny and classification, distribution, review of selected families.
  • 5. Superorder Neoptera. Cohort Polyneoptera: synapomorphies of the group, phylogenetic relations among orders. Zoraptera, Embioptera, Phasmatodea, Grylloblattodea, Mantophasmatodea and Dermaptera (earwigs): morphology, ecology, distribution, diversity, classification of world fauna, survey of species of Dermaptera occurring in the Czech Republic. Plecoptera (stoneflies): structure of adult and nymphal body, eggs, diversity, phylogeny, suborders Antarctoperlaria and Arctoperlaria, behaviour and bioacoustics, review of families of the world fauna, examples of taxa occurring in the Czech Republic.
  • 6. Dictyoptera: order Blattodea (cockroaches): morphology, development, ecology, review of families, Czech fauna, selected taxa of the world fauna, Isoptera (termites): phylogenetic relations with the remaining Blattodea taxa, biology, diversity and distribution, west Palaearctic fauna; order Mantodea (mantises): morphology, development, behaviour, diversity, European fauna. Order Orthoptera: morphology, development, behaviour, suborders Ensifera (bush-crickets, crickets, katydids and allied taxa) and Caelifera (grasshoppers), review of world and Czech fauna.
  • 7. Cohort Paraneoptera: synapomorphies, evolutionary trends,phylogenetic relations between orders. Order Psocodea (book-lice and lice), traditional and current classification based on phylogeny, polyphyly of Phthiraptera; morphology of free-living taxa, suborders Trogiomorpha, Psocomorpha, Troctomorpha; morphology, development, hosts and classification of the parasitic taxa: Rhynchopthirina, Anoplura, Ischnocera, Amblycera; species of economic, veterinary and medical importance, host specificity, coevolution, collecting and preparation methods. Order Thysanoptera (thrips): morphology, development, ecology, classification, diversity, suborders Terebrantia and Tubulifera, review of families, economic importance.
  • 8. Order Hemiptera: synapomorphies, structure and function of the mouthparts, phylogeny and systematics, ecology, trophic adaptations of phytophagous groups, filtering chamber, endosymbionts, wax glands, economic importance. Suborder Sternorrhyncha, synapomorphies, systematics. Superfamily Psylloidea (jumping plant-lice, psyllids): adult and nymphal morphology, host specificity, galls, lerps, life cycle of central European species, phylogeny and systematics, Czech fauna, species of economic importance, collection methods, monitoring, preparation and identification. Superfamily Aleyrodoidea (whiteflies): morphology of adults and nymphs, diversity and systematics, Czech fauna, introduced greenhouse pests, collection and preparation methods, identification. Superfamily Aphidoidea (aphids): morphology, life cycles, ecology, diversity and systematics, review of families with special respect to the Czech fauna and species of economic importance, collection and preparation methods, identification. Superfamily Coccoidea (scale insects): morphology, sexual dimorphism, development, diversity and systematics, review of families with special respect to the Czech fauna and species of economic importance, collection and preparation methods, identification. Suborder Auchenorrhyncha: morphology, development, infraorders Fulgoromorpha (planthoppers) and Cicadomorpha (leafhoppers), morphology, reviews of families, ecology, sound-producing organs, brochosomes, collection and preparation methods, identification. Suborder Coleorrhyncha: morphology, diversity and distribution.
  • 9. Suborder Heteroptera (true bugs): morphology, structure of head, thorax, scent glands, hemielytrae, pterygopolymorphism, reproduction and development, bioacoustic, life in terrestrial and aquatic habitats, diversity, phylogeny, systematics, infraorders Enicocephalomorpha, Dipsocoromorpha, Gerromorpha, Nepomorpha, Leptopodomorpha, Cimicomorpha, Pentatomorpha: morfological and biological characteristics, review of families of the world fauna with special respect to the Czech Republic.
  • 10. Cohort Holometabola (Endopterygota): synapomorphies, phylogenetic relations among orders. Order Megaloptera (alder flies): morphology of adults, larvae and pupae, ecology, distribution, diversity, review of families, fauna of the Czech Republic. Order Raphidioptera: morphology of adults and larvae, ecology, review of families, Czech fauna. Order Neuroptera: morphology of adults, larvae and pupae, ecology, diversity, review of families with special respect to the fauna of the Czech Republic.
  • 11. Antliophora group of orders. Mecoptera (scorpionflies): morphology of adults, larvae and pupae, ecology, review of families with special respect to the fauna of the Czech Republic. Siphonaptera (fleas): synapomorphies, phylogenetic relationships with Mecoptera, morphology of adults and larvae, adaptations to the parasitic life, development, ecology, classification, veterinary and medicinal importance, review of important species, vectors of pathogenic microorganisms. Order Strepsiptera (twisted-wing parasites): morphology of males, females and larvae, phylogenetic relations within Holometabola, life cycle, host specificity, diversity, host manipulation, phylogeny and classification, review of Czech fauna.
  • 12. Order Coleoptera (beetles): diversity, habitat specialisation, morphology of adults and larvae, phylogeny and systematics. Suborders Archostemmata, Myxophaga, Adephaga and Polyphaga: morphology, diversity, reviews of families, ecology, distribution, with special respect to the Czech fauna.
  • 13. Order Trichoptera (caddis-flies): morphology of adults, larvae, pupae and eggs; collection and preservation methods, identification; fossil record, phylogeny and systematics, relations to Lepidoptera (Amphiesmenoptera hypothesis). Order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths): synapomorphies, morphology of adults, eggs, larvae and pupae, history of systematic research, systematics and classification, diversity and state-of-the-art of the Czech fauna, review of families and selected species, migrating species, isolated and relict occurrences, extinct species in the Czech Republic.
  • 14. Order Diptera: morphology of adults, larvae and pupae, collecting methos, characters useful for identification, traditional classification, current hyptheses on phylogeny, groups Nematocera and Brachycera, review of families with special respect to the fauna of the Czech Republic.
  • 15. Order Hymenoptera: synapomorphies, phylogenetic relations with the other insect orders morphology of adults, larvae and pupae, development, traditional classification and current hypotheses on phylogeny, groups Symphyta and Apocrita, review of superfamilies and families, their morphology, ecology and diversity with special respect to the Czech fauna.
Literature
    recommended literature
  • BEUTEL, Rolf. Insect morphology and phylogeny : a textbook for students of entomology. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2014. xv, 516. ISBN 9783110262636. info
  • GRIMALDI, David A. and Michael S. ENGEL. Evolution of the insects. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005. xv, 755. ISBN 0521821495. info
  • GULLAN, P. J. and P. S. CRANSTON. The insects : an outline of entomology. Illustrated by Karina Hansen McInnes. 4th ed. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010. xvi, 565. ISBN 9781444330366. info
  • Encyclopedia of insects. Edited by Vincent H. Resh - Ring T. Cardé. Amsterdam: Academic press, 2003. xxviii, 12. ISBN 0125869908. info
    not specified
  • Encyclopedia of entomology. Edited by John L. Capinera. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004. xli, 815. ISBN 0792386701. info
Teaching methods
Theoretical knowledge will be presented in lectures (partly prepared by taxonomic experts for some groups), practical presentation of insect collections for each taxon, introduction to specialized literature.
Assessment methods
Oral exam, including identification of insect material. To pass the exam students need to have a solid knowledge of systematics and biology of insects at least at the level of orders and correctly answer at least 60% of questions.
Language of instruction
Czech
Follow-Up Courses
Further comments (probably available only in Czech)
The course is taught once in two years.
Information on the per-term frequency of the course: jaro sudých let.
The course is taught: every week.
General note: náplň předmětu doplňují doporučená praktická cvičení Bi8762 a Bi8763 a terénní cvičení Bi0055.
The course is also listed under the following terms Spring 2011, Spring 2012, spring 2012 - acreditation, Spring 2013, Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, spring 2018, Spring 2019.
  • Enrolment Statistics (recent)
  • Permalink: https://is.muni.cz/course/sci/spring2021/Bi8780