C2480 Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry

Faculty of Science
Spring 2003
Extent and Intensity
2/0/0. 2 credit(s) (fasci plus compl plus > 4). Type of Completion: zk (examination).
Teacher(s)
doc. RNDr. Ctibor Mazal, CSc. (lecturer)
Guaranteed by
doc. RNDr. Ctibor Mazal, CSc.
Chemistry Section - Faculty of Science
Course Enrolment Limitations
The course is also offered to the students of the fields other than those the course is directly associated with.
fields of study / plans the course is directly associated with
Course objectives
A survey of basic concepts of general chemistry is given including basic chemical principles, molecular structure, and chemical bond theory. Fundamentals of reaction kinetics, acid-base and redox equilibria are presented. Main groups of organic compounds their structures and reactivities are introduced. Brief principles of biochemistry are explained on main groups of biologically important compounds and fundamental biochemical processes.
Syllabus
  • 1. Fundamentals of General Chemistry. Quantitative relationships in Chemical reactions. Atomic theory and chemical bond. Reaction kinetics and chemical equilibria. Acid/base equilibria, pH, pKa and pKb. Buffers.
  • 2. Saturated hydrocarbons. Nomenclature of alkanes and cycloalkanes. Structure and physical properties. Conformation. Chemical reactivity, radical substitution. Structure and stability of cycloalkanes. Geometric isomers.
  • 3. Unsaturated hydrocarbons. Naming of alkenes and alkynes. Structure and chemical reactivity, electrophilic addition. Markovnikov rule and stability of carbocations. Dienes. Benzene ring and aromaticity. Chemical reactivity of aromatic compounds, SEAr.
  • 4. Halogen derivatives. Naming, structure and physical properties. Chemical reactivity, nucleophilic substitution vs. elimination.
  • 5. Alcohols, phenols, ethers and their sulfur containing analogues. Naming, structure, physical properties, and chemical reactivity. Oxidation. Cyclic ethers.
  • 6. Aldehydes and ketones. Structure and physical properties. Naming. Chemical reactivity, oxidation, reduction, reaction with nucleophiles. Acetals. Aldol condensation.
  • 7. Carboxylic acids and their derivatives. Occurrence, naming, structure and physical properties. Chemical reactivity. Acidity, esterification and hydrolysis, Claisen condensation. Organophosphate esters and anhydrides.
  • 8. Nitrogen containing compounds. Nitroderivatives. Amines and amides. Structure and naming. Chemical reactivity, reduction of nitroderivatives, basicity of amines and quaternary ammonium salts.
  • 9. Stereoisomers. Molecular chirality and optical activity.
  • 10. Saccharides. Structure and chemical properties of saccharides. D- and L-families of carbohydrates. Fisher formulae. Cyclic forms of saccharides, epimerization. Glycoside bond, disaccharides and polysaccharides.
  • 11. Lipids. Classification of lipids. Fats - properties and hydrolysis. Fatty acids and soaps. Phospholipids. Steroids. Role of lipids in formation of cell membranes.
  • 12. Proteins. Aminoacids - buildings blocks of peptides. Peptide bond. Isoelectric point. Structure of proteins. Common properties of proteins. Classification and biological functions of proteins.
  • 13. Enzymes, hormones, and neurotransmitters. Fundamentals of simple enzyme kinetics. Enzyme regulation. Chemical communication - an overview.
  • 14. Nucleic acids. Structure of nucleic acids. DNA, RNA. Proteosynthesis. Viruses.
  • 15. Biological energetic. The citric acid cycle. The respiratory chain. Metabolism of carbohydrates and fats.
Literature
  • Fundamentals of general, organic, and biological chemistry. Edited by John R. Holum. 5th ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1994. xvii, S. 2. ISBN 0-471-57949-1. info
  • POTÁČEK, Milan. Organická chemie pro biology. 1. vyd. Brno: Univerzita Jana Evangelisty Purkyně, 1988. 209 s. info
  • Vodrážka, Zdeněk . Biochemie. Praha: Academia, 1996, ISBN 80-200-0600-1
  • VACÍK, Jiří. Obecná chemie [Vacík, 1986]. 1. vyd. Praha: Státní pedagogické nakladatelství, 1986. 303 s. info
  • DUCHOŇ, Jiří. Lekárska chémia a biochémia. 1988. 749 s. info
Assessment methods (in Czech)
Přednáška zakončená ústní zkouškou.
Language of instruction
Czech
Further comments (probably available only in Czech)
The course is taught annually.
The course is taught: every week.
General note: nezapisují studenti dvouoborového studia biologie/chemie.
Listed among pre-requisites of other courses
The course is also listed under the following terms Spring 2008 - for the purpose of the accreditation, Spring 2011 - only for the accreditation, Spring 2000, Spring 2001, Spring 2002, Spring 2004, Spring 2005, Spring 2006, Spring 2007, Spring 2008, Spring 2009, Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Spring 2012, spring 2012 - acreditation, Spring 2013, Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Spring 2017, spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022.
  • Enrolment Statistics (Spring 2003, recent)
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