The course is also offered to the students of the fields other than those the course is directly associated with.
Fields of study the course is directly associated with
there are 23 fields of study the course is directly associated with, display
Dynamic biochemistry I - control of metabolism. A follow-up lecture course of dynamic biochemistry and pathobiochemistry for MSc (and also PhD) and Bc students of biochemistry and molecular biology and also of general biology, chemistry and medicine.
At the end of the course, students should be able to:
- describe and explain the main metabolic pathways in bacteria and eukaryots;
- analyze the control mechanisms engaged in the coordination of catabolic and anabolic processes at the level of whole organism;
- reproduce and present their extended knowledge of dynamic biochemistry and enzymology;
- demonstrate new information on biomedical aspects of biochemistry.
I. Biochemical regulations at the molecular level. 1. Overview of the basic types of biochemical regulation mechanisms. 2. Allosteric regulations - generally. (Models of allosteric interactions - concerted (symmetrical model) and sequential. Cooperative binding, homotropic and heterotropic interactions). 3. Hemoglobin (Hb) as a prototype of an allosteric protein. (Biological function of Hb, differences between Hb and myoglobin. Changes in quaternary structure of Hb on oxygenation. The Bohr effect - the influence of H+ and CO2 concentrations on the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen. The effect of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate on the binding of oxygen by Hb). 4. Allosteric control of enzyme activity of aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase). (The function of ATCase, biological significance of the allosteric regulation. Dissociation of catalytic and regulatory subunits of ATCase. Structural basis of allosteric interactions in ATCase). 5. Regulation of bacterial biosynthesis of aminoacids. (Types of feedback inhibition of branched metabolic pathways). 6. Reversible covalent modification of enzymes. (The role of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation reactions in control processes. Modulation of glutamine synthetase activity by reversible covalent modification). 7. Modulation of enzyme activity by regulatory proteins. (Control of covalent modification of glutamine synthetase by enzyme cascade). 8. Activation of zymogens by specific proteolytic cleavage. (Activation of trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen. The cascade of proteolytic activation of zymogens in the process of blood clotting. The role for vitamin K in the biosynthesis of prothrombin. Complex regulation of blood clotting). II. Control of metabolism at the level of whole organism. 9. Overview of the metabolic pathways. (From the macromolecules of food to ATP). 10. Glycolysis. (Allosteric control of key enzymes in glycolysis). 11. Regulation of the metabolism of glycogen. (Overview of the reactions of glycogen biosynthesis and breakdown. Structural basis of the control of enzymes engaged in glycogen metabolism. Integration of control mechanisms - maintaining the blood glucose level constant). 12. Citric acid cycle. The respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation. 13. Regulation of ATP synthesis. (ATP synthase. Adenine nucleotide translocase. Na+,K+ -ATPase as an example of ionic pump).
SILBERNAGL, Stefan and Agamemnon DESPOPOULOS. Atlas fyziologie člověka : 201 barevných tabulí. Translated by Otomar Kittnar. 4. české vydání. Praha: Grada Publishing, 2016. xv, 434. ISBN 9788024742717. info
KRAUSS, Gerhard. Biochemistry of signal transduction and regulation. 5th, completely rev. ed. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, 2014. xxviii, 81. ISBN 9783527333660. info
KOOLMAN, Jan and Klaus-Heinrich RÖHM. Barevný atlas biochemie. Translated by Vladimír Benda - Martin Vejražka - Jiří Jonák. 1. české vydání. Praha: Grada, 2012. xiv, 498. ISBN 9788024729770. info
KITTNAR, Otomar and Mikuláš MLČEK. Atlas fyziologických regulací. 1. vyd. Praha: Grada, 2009. 316 s. ISBN 9788024727226. info
HOLEČEK, Milan. Regulace metabolizmu cukrů, tuků, bílkovin a aminokyselin. 1. vyd. Praha: Grada, 2006. 286 s. ISBN 8024715627. info