C4182 Biochemistry II

Faculty of Science
Spring 2023
Extent and Intensity
2/0/0. 2 credit(s) (fasci plus compl plus > 4). Type of Completion: zk (examination).
Taught in person.
prof. RNDr. Petr Skládal, CSc. (lecturer)
Guaranteed by
prof. RNDr. Petr Skládal, CSc.
Department of Biochemistry - Chemistry Section - Faculty of Science
Supplier department: Department of Biochemistry - Chemistry Section - Faculty of Science
Tue 10:00–11:50 B11/205
C3181 Biochemistry I
Basic knowledge of biochemistry I
Course Enrolment Limitations
The course is also offered to the students of the fields other than those the course is directly associated with.
fields of study / plans the course is directly associated with
there are 17 fields of study the course is directly associated with, display
Course objectives
This course is an extension of the Biochemistry I. It carries next important knowledges about biochemical reactions in living cell. It describes the metabolism of proteins and nucleic acids, proteosynthesis and its regulation, basic metods of study and practical applications. It describes also other functions of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, some special metabolic pathways and indicates the connections between chemical reactions and physiological features in an organism.
Students will acquire important knowledges here, necessary for full understanding of basic principles of biochemical basis of life, and required for next special courses in biochemistry and molecular biology.
Learning outcomes
Students will acquire important knowledges here, necessary for full understanding of basic principles of biochemical basis of life, and required for next special courses in biochemistry and molecular biology. They will learn metabolism of nitrogen containing compounds, genetic code, principles of replication, transcription and tranlation.
  • Biochemistry II 1. Catabolism of proteins and amino acids. Peptidases, classification, importance, specificity.Degradation of amino acids, transamination, biogenic amines. Special catabolic pathways (viz. aromatic and essential.) Genetic diseases in amino acid metabolism. 2. Nitrogen excretion, the role of glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase, ornithine cycle. Uric acid. Ammonia assimilation. 3. Metabolism of nucleic acids and proteosynthesis. Synthesis and degradation of bases. Breakdown and synthesis of nucleic acids. Phosphodiesterases, palindromes, restriction endonucleases. DNA replication, replication fork, DNA polymerase. Transcription of DNA and its factors, mRNA, codon, relationship between protein structure and codons, reverse transcription, tRNA structure, anticodon, ribosomes, translation, posttranslational modifications. Point mutations, insertion, deletion. Regulation of genes expression in prokaryotes (inducible and repressive systems, operon, repressor). 4. Carbohydrate metabolism, degradation and synthesis of polysaccharides (starch, glycogen). Interconversion of monosaccharides. Hexosemonophosphate pathway, importance. Pentose cycle. Glycolysis, individual steps, energetic balance. Substrate-level phosphorylation. Gluconeogenesis, PEP synthesis. Cori cycle. Oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate. 5. The metabolism of lipids. Degradation and synthesis of fats and phospholipids. Degradation and synthesis of fatty acids. Ketone bodies. 6. Tricarboxylic acids cycle, reactions, importance, energetic balance. Anabolic aspects, anaplerotic reactions, glyoxylate shunt. 7. Redox reactions in biochemistry. Respiratory chain, its components (cytochrome, ubiquinone), structure of complexes I - IV. Oxidative phosphorylation, chemiosmotic coupling, protonmotive force, transmembrane potential. ATP synthesis, structure of ATP synthase. Inhibitors of respiration and ATP synthesis, uncouplers, ionophores. Energetic balance. Alternative respirations. Microsomal electron transport, cyt P450. Nitrogenase system. 8. Photosynthesis, light reactions, chlorophylls, structure of reaction centre. Components of electron transfer (cytochromes, quinones, plastocyanine, ferredoxin), PS-1, PS-2, mechanism of ATP synthesis. Equation and balance of dark phase. Dark reactions (Calvin cycle), RUBISCO, mechanism of CO2 fixation. 9. Membrane transport, facilitated diffusion, active transport, permeases, ion channels. Transport of ions, sugars and amino acids. Symport and antiport. Membrane fusion. Structure and function of Na-K-ATPase, lactose transporter, K-channel structure. Neurotransmission. 10. Principles of metabolic regulations, levels, mechanisms (endproduct regulation - feedback inhibition, energetic potential, allosteric effects, cooperativity, Hill equation). Molecular backgrounds of humoral regulation, structure and hierarchy of hormone system. 11. Isoprenoids, carotenoids, steroids (cholesterol, its synthesis, conformation, bile acids, vitamins D, steroid hormones). Porphyrins, heme synthesis and degradation, regulation. 12. Basic reaction and pathways in synthesis of aromates (shikimate and polyketide pathways.) Secondary metabolites, general reactions in synthesis of alkaloids.
  • Biochemie. Edited by Zdeněk Vodrážka. 2. opr. vyd. Praha: Academia, 1996. 191 s. ISBN 80-200-0600-1. info
  • Biochemie. Edited by Daniel Voet - Judith G. Voet, Translated by A. Maelicke - W. Müller-E. Weinheim: VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1992. 1237 s. ISBN 3-527-28242-4. info
  • ŠÍPAL, Zdeněk. Biochemie. 1. vyd. Praha: Státní pedagogické nakladatelství, 1992. 479 s. ISBN 8004217362. info
  • Mikes, V. - Základní pojmy z biochemie
Teaching methods
Assessment methods
Basic lecture. Written examination.
Language of instruction
Follow-Up Courses
Further comments (probably available only in Czech)
Study Materials
The course is taught annually.
Listed among pre-requisites of other courses

Zobrazit další předměty

The course is also listed under the following terms Spring 2008 - for the purpose of the accreditation, Spring 2011 - only for the accreditation, Spring 2000, Spring 2001, Spring 2002, Spring 2003, Spring 2004, Spring 2005, Spring 2006, Spring 2007, Spring 2008, Spring 2009, Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Spring 2012, spring 2012 - acreditation, Spring 2013, Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Spring 2017, spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2021, Spring 2022.
  • Enrolment Statistics (recent)
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