|The World Economic Forum’s Global Risks Report 2020 (WEF, 2020) lists cyber-attacks as one of the top 10 risks regarding both likelihood and impact. In 2014 the IISS indicated that “coercive cyber capabilities are becoming a new instrument of state power, as countries seek to strengthen national security and exercise political influence. Military capabilities are being upgraded to monitor the 86 constantly changing cyber domain and to launch, and to defend against, cyber attacks” (IISS, 2014). Since the DDoS attacks against Estonia in 2007 and the Stuxnet infection of the Natanz nuclear facility became public, there has been a steady increase in cyber activity related to conflict and major political events. The increasing use of information, ICTs, and artificial intelligence in national security, military, and peacekeeping operations raises a number of ethical, legal, and technical concerns. There have been a number of initiatives attempting to provide frameworks and/or norms to address these concerns, such as the UN Group of Governmental Experts and the Open Ended Working Group, the Global Commission for the Stability for Cyberspace, and the Paris Call, amongst others. However, challenges remain as the norms are voluntary, and existing agreements are difficult to enforce. As an illustration of this, there have been cyber attacks reported on power grids, water treatment facilities, and other economically important infrastructure. This session will focus on the strategic, governance and international humanitarian law aspects with respect to the use of ICTs in scenarios of conflict and the maintaining of peace. Consideration will be given to the use of ICTs and cyber operations at the operational and tactical levels. The purpose of this discussion is for attendees to network and discuss current trends in this space and explore future avenues of research.