VLHE0221p Histology and Embryology I - lecture

Faculty of Medicine
spring 2021
Extent and Intensity
2/0/0. 2 credit(s). Type of Completion: z (credit).
Taught online.
doc. MVDr. Aleš Hampl, CSc. (lecturer)
doc. MUDr. Miroslava Sedláčková, CSc. (lecturer)
MUDr. Veronika Sedláková, Ph.D. (lecturer)
doc. RNDr. Petr Vaňhara, Ph.D. (lecturer)
MUDr. Ivana Baltasová (assistant)
Klára Dolinová (assistant)
MUDr. Jana Dumková, Ph.D. (assistant)
Mgr. Hana Kotasová, Ph.D. (assistant)
MVDr. Lenka Lišková (assistant)
Ing. Nicole Ludikovská (assistant)
MUDr. Eva Mecová (assistant)
Volodymyr Porokh (assistant)
Mgr. Eva Švandová, Ph.D. (assistant)
Guaranteed by
doc. MVDr. Aleš Hampl, CSc.
Department of Histology and Embryology - Theoretical Departments - Faculty of Medicine
Contact Person: doc. MUDr. Miroslava Sedláčková, CSc.
Supplier department: Department of Histology and Embryology - Theoretical Departments - Faculty of Medicine
Mon 1. 3. to Wed 26. 5. Wed 10:00–11:40 B22/116 aula
Prerequisites (in Czech)
VLAN0121s Anatomy I s && VLBI0121c Biology I -pract.
Course Enrolment Limitations
The course is only offered to the students of the study fields the course is directly associated with.
fields of study / plans the course is directly associated with
there are 6 fields of study the course is directly associated with, display
Course objectives
The aim of the course is to understand the structure of cells and tissues, interactions of cells and extracellular matrix, the morphology and functional relationships of the tissues in the organs and organ systems of the human body. The aim of the embryology is understanding basic developmental principles from fertilization to birth, development of individual body systems and some of the mechanisms leading to the origin of congenital defects.
Learning outcomes
At the end of the course students should be able to:
1. Understand and explain the structure of a cell, basic structural principles and function of connective tissues, features of epithelial tissue, structure of different types of muscle tissue, structure and function of nervous tissue.
2. Identify tissue types in histologic slides.
3. Characterize microscopic structure of individual organs of human body and explain correlations of tissues within organs.
4. Describe gamete development, explain principle of meiosis and regulation of gametogenesis.
5. Define the early embryonic development as well as development of fetal membranes, placenta and umbilical cord.
6. Characterize stages of embryonic development, describe the development of individual organ systems of human body.
7. Explain the mechanism of the origin of some developmental anomalies.
  • 1. Introduction. The object and significance of histology. Relevance of histology to other biomedical disciplines. History, current state, and future of histology. Methodologies to study a structure of cells and tissues. Cytology: The cell - definition, characteristics, compartmentalization. Cell nucleus - ultrastructure and function, chromosomes, nucleolus.Introduction
  • 2. Organelles - structure, localization, and function. Cell inclusions and pigments. Cytoskeleton - microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules. Cell surface structures and intercellular bonds. Cell division cycle. Cell differentiation, cell migration, organization of cells into tissues and organs - general aspects.
  • 3. General embryology. Definition. The object and significance of embryology. Overview of the early human development: The phases of the human ontogeny. Human gametes - their structure, physiology and origin (gametogenesis). Differences between spermatogenesis and oogenesis. Transport of gametes. Sperm capacitation. Fertilization and cleavage. Activation of the embryonal genome. Nuclear transfer. Morula and blastocyst. Embryonic stem cells. Outline of the implantation. Abnormal sites of implantation (extrauterine pregnancies).
  • 4. The development of the germ disc: origin of the intraembryonic mesoderm and notogenesis (development of the chorda dorsalis). Somites and their derivatives. Outline of the development of fetal membranes: amniotic sac, chorion, and placenta. Function of the placenta. The umbilical cord. Anomalies of the placenta and umbilical cord. Development of external shape of the embryo and fetus. The rule of Hasse. Uterine growth during pregnancy. Parturition. Marks of the mature and full-term fetus. Position, posture and presentation of the fetus. Multiple pregnancy: mono- and dizygotic twins; arrangement of fetal membranes in twins.
  • 5. General histology. Tissues - definition, their origin, and classification. Connective and supporting tissue - general characteristics, their components and classification. The connective tissue proper - types, main distribution, and function.
  • 6. Supporting tissues - cartilage and bone - types, main distribution, and function. Histogenesis and regeneration of connective tissues.
  • 7. Epithelial tissue - definition, classification, and histogenesis. Epithelial membranes and glandular epithelium - an overview. Characteristics of glandular cells. Absorptive, respiratory, and sensory epithelia.
  • 8. Neural tissue - general characteristics and classification. Neurons – structure and function. Synapse. Neuroglial cells - types and function. Sheaths of nerve fibres. Conduction of nerve impulses. Histogenesis and regeneration of the neural tissue.
  • 9. Muscle tissue - general characteristics and classification. Smooth muscle tissue. Skeletal muscle tissue. Ultrastructure of the myofibrils. Mechanism of the muscle contraction. Cardiac muscle tissue. Inervation and vascularization of the muscle. Muscle histogenesis and regeneration.
  • 10. Blood cell morphology: Erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes. Differential white cell count. Prenatal and postnatal hematopoiesis. Erythropoiesis, granulopoiesis, thrombopoiesis.
  • 11. Microscopic anatomy and special embryology. Cardiovascular system. Microscopic structure of the heart, excitomotoric system - its structural peculiarities. Blood vessels - arteries and veins - structural differences. Capillary bed. Lymph vessels and capillaries.
  • 12. Development of the heart. Primitive blood circulation in the embryo. Fetal blood circulation.
    recommended literature
  • ČECH, Svatopluk and Drahomír HORKÝ. Přehled obecné histologie. 1. vyd. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 2005. 140 s. ISBN 8021038543. info
  • HORKÝ, Drahomír and Svatopluk ČECH. Mikroskopická anatomie. 2. nezm. vyd. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 2005. 353 s. ISBN 802103775X. info
  • ČECH, Svatopluk, Drahomír HORKÝ and Miroslava SEDLÁČKOVÁ. Přehled embryologie člověka. 1. vyd. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 2011. 187 pp. ISBN 978-80-210-5414-1. info
    not specified
  • MESCHER, Anthony L. Junqueira's basic histology : text and atlas. 13th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical, 2013. xi, 544. ISBN 9781259072321. info
  • LÜLLMANN-RAUCH, Renate. Histologie. Translated by Radomír Čihák. 1. české vyd. Praha: Grada, 2012. xx, 556. ISBN 9788024737294. info
  • SADLER, T. W. Langmanova lékařská embryologie. 1. české vyd. Praha: Grada, 2011. xviii, 414. ISBN 9788024726403. info
  • VACEK, Zdeněk. Embryologie : učebnice pro studenty lékařství a oborů všeobecná sestra a porodní asistentka. 1. vyd. Praha: Grada, 2006. 255 s. ISBN 9788024712673. info
  • KAPELLER, Karol and Viera POSPÍŠILOVÁ. Embryológia človeka: učebnica pre lekárske fakulty. Martin: Osveta, 2001. 370 pp. ISBN 80-8063-072-0. info
Teaching methods
Assessment methods
Students will pass examination after finishing Histology and embryology II - lecture.
Language of instruction
Further comments (probably available only in Czech)
Study Materials
The course is taught annually.
Information on the extent and intensity of the course: 30.
Information on course enrolment limitations: Mimo studenty LF jen se souhlasem garanta oboru.
Teacher's information
The course is also listed under the following terms Spring 2016, Spring 2017, Spring 2018, spring 2019, spring 2020.
  • Enrolment Statistics (recent)
  • Permalink: https://is.muni.cz/course/med/spring2021/VLHE0221p