C1020 General Chemistry

Faculty of Science
Autumn 2020
Extent and Intensity
4/0/0. 4 credit(s) (fasci plus compl plus > 4). Type of Completion: zk (examination).
Taught online.
Teacher(s)
prof. RNDr. Jiří Pinkas, Ph.D. (lecturer)
Guaranteed by
prof. RNDr. Jiří Pinkas, Ph.D.
Department of Chemistry - Chemistry Section - Faculty of Science
Contact Person: prof. RNDr. Jiří Pinkas, Ph.D.
Supplier department: Department of Chemistry - Chemistry Section - Faculty of Science
Timetable
Tue 12:00–13:50 Pouze distančně, Thu 10:00–11:50 Pouze distančně
Prerequisites
Knowledge of chemistry on secondary school level
Course Enrolment Limitations
The course is also offered to the students of the fields other than those the course is directly associated with.
fields of study / plans the course is directly associated with
there are 10 fields of study the course is directly associated with, display
Course objectives
The course objective is to introduce students to a variety of chemical principles, in preparation for more detailed chemistry study in later years. Description of concepts and facts seeks the understanding of chemical world on an atomic and molecular level based on qualitative quantum theory. The molecular approach supports the comprehension of macroscopic phenomena and laws firmly depicted by thermodynamics and chemical kinetics.
Learning outcomes
Upon completing this course, students will be able: To apply principal chemical laws and uderstand stoichiometry; To describe elemental particles and distinguish terms element, nuclide, and isotope; To express mass of atoms and molecules, molar amount, and molar mass; To understand basic terms in radioactivity, radioactivity laws, Fajans-Soddy rules, and write equations for nuclear reactions; To appreciate the historical importance of the Bohr theory of hydrogen atom, to describe X-ray radiation and Moseley‘s law; To understand meaning of the Schrödinger wave equation, wave function, and probability of electron occurrence; To apply the Aufbau principle, Pauli principle, and Hund’s rule to the electronic structure of many electron atoms; To present Periodic law and predict trends in properties of elements (covalent and ionic radii, ionization energy, electron affinity, electronegativity); To describe covalent bonding by overlap of atomic orbitals and MO, draw molecular diagrams of biatomic molecules, describe polarity, ionic degree, bond order, length and energy of bonds; To derive shape of molecules by the VSEPR method and find symmetry elements; To understand terms central atom, ligand, coordination polyhedra, to describe structural isomerism of complexes, to present principles of ligand field theory for octahedral and tetrahedral complexes, to distinguish high- and low spin complexes; To apply the state equation and simple laws for ideal gas, and van der Waals state equation; To describe structure of solids, to distinguish terms motif, crystal lattice, and crystal structure, describe properties by lattice energy and bonding in solids by Band theory, distinguish conductors, semiconductors, and insulators; To describe energy changes in course of chemical reactions, to know fundamental thermodynamical parameters and laws, chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant, influence of state variables on equilibrium; To desribe reaction kinetics by reaction velocity and rate law, to understand the meaning of rate constant and influence of temperature and activation energy on reaction rate; To use different concentration variables, to understand electrolytical dissociation, to describe phase equilibrium by Gibbs phase rule; To apply acid-base theories, to express acidity and basicity of aqueous solutions and strength of acids and bases; To apply Faraday law, standard electrochemical potentials, and Nernst and Nernst-Peters equations; To describe basic principles and results of X-ray diffraction analysis, mass spectrometry, and NMR spectroscopy
Syllabus
  • 1. Principles of chemistry, matter, its properties and forms of matter existence, principal chemical laws, chemical formula, chemical materials, purity of compounds, mixtures, physical and chemical characteristics of pure compounds.

    2. Atom symbolics, elemental particles, element, nuclide, isotope, isotone, isobare, mass of elements and molecules, mass unit u, mole, molar mass. Atomic nucleus, mass defect, stability of nuclei, radioactivity, radioactivity law, Fajans-Soddy rules, nuclear reactions.

    3. Physical differences between micro- and macro world, particle-wave character of microparticles, dualistic view on matter, Heisenberg principle of uncertainty. Bohr theory of hydrogen atom, emission spectrum of H.- atom, X-ray irradiation, Moseley law. Wave equation, wave function, probability of electron occurrence, atomic orbital, quantum numbers, shapes of atomic orbitals, energy states and their degeneration, Aufbau principle of many electron atom, Pauli principle, Hund principle.

    4. Periodical law, primary and secondary periodicity. Properties of elements, ionization energy, electron affinity, electronegativity. Formation of ions, ions with 18 and 20 valence electrons, ionic radii, ionic crystals, methods of their study.

    5. Covalent and donor-acceptor bonding, wave-mechanic model of chemical bond, overlap of atomic orbitals, overlap integral, types of molecular orbitals (s, p, d), LCAO-MO, molecular diagrams of homo- and heteronuclear biatomic molecules. Polarity, ionic degree, bond order, length and energy of bond.

    6. Shape of molecules, hybridization, VSEPR method, delocalization of electron density, resonance, compounds with lack of electrons, weak interactions between molecules (van der Waals forces, H-bonding).

    7. Principles of coordination chemistry, central atom, ligand, coordination polyhedra, chelates, chelate effect, polynuclear complexes, clusters, structural isomerism of complexes. Nomenclature of complex compounds. Donor-acceptor properties of ligands, principles of ligand field theory, octahedral, tetrahedral and tetragonal complexes, high- and low spin complexes, Jahn-Teller effect, spectral and magnetic properties of complexes. Complex equilibria, mechanisms of complexing reactions, trans-effect.

    8. State equation and simple laws for ideal gas, transport phenomena in gases, Graham law, real gas, critical state, liquefaction of gases, reduced van der Waals state equation, State equation for liquids, surface tension, viscosity.

    9. Common properties of solids, crystal lattice, Madelung constant, Born-Haber cycle, lattice energy, symmetry of molecules and ions. Band theory in electronic structure of solids, properties of metals, metallic bond, conductors, semiconductors, insulators. 10. Types and mechanism of chemical reactions, energy changes in course of chemical reactions, fundamental thermodynamical parameters (U,H,G,S) and laws, Hess law, thermodynamical conditions of spontaneous reaction course. Chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant, influence of temperature and pressure, Le Chatelier's principle. Reaction kinetics, reaction velocity law, reaction molecularity and order. Arrhenius law, activation energy, reaction coordinate, homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis.

    11. Equilibrium in polyphase system. Gibbs phase rule, definition of phase, component and degree of freedom. Solutions, solubility, concentration units, conductivity of solutions, electrolytical dissociation, solvation and association of ions, ionic strength, activity and activity coefficient. Precipitation and solubility product, properties of diluted solutions, Raoult law, ebullioscopy and cryoscopy, distillation, rectification, sublimation, melting.

    12. Acid-base theories, solvotheory of acids and bases, superacid media, acidity and basicity of aqueous solutions, pH, hydrolysis of salts, buffers anf their capacity.

    13. Fundamentals of electrochemistry, Faraday law, coulometry, electrochemical potential, types of electrodes, standard electrode potentials, standard hydrogen electrode, Nernst and Nernst-Peters equations, galvanic cells.

    14. Absorption of elecrtomagnetic irradiation, function of spectrometer. Molecular spectra, IR and Raman spectrometry, electron spectrometry, luminiscence. Magnetic properties og compounds, magnetic moment of atom and nucleus, dia- and paramagnetism, ferro- and antiferromagnetism. X-ray structural analysis, mass spectrometry.
Literature
    recommended literature
  • POLÁK, Rudolf and Rudolf ZAHRADNÍK. Obecná chemie : stručný úvod. Vyd. 1. Praha: Academia, 2000. 224 s. ISBN 8020007946. info
  • ATKINS, P. W. and Loretta JONES. Chemical principles : the quest for insight. 3rd ed. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company, 2005. 1 sv. ISBN 071675701X. info
  • ZUMDAHL, Steven S. and Susan A. ZUMDAHL. Chemistry. 6th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2003. xxiv, 1102. ISBN 0618221565. info
  • HILL, John W. General chemistry. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2005. xxvii, 107. ISBN 0131180037. info
  • HÁLA, Jiří. Pomůcka ke studiu obecné chemie. 1. vyd. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 1993. 85 s. ISBN 8021002891. info
  • KLIKORKA, Jiří, Bohumil HÁJEK and Jiří VOTINSKÝ. Obecná a anorganická chemie [Klikorka, 1989] a. 2. nezměn. vyd. Praha: SNTL - Nakladatelství technické literatury, 1989. 592 s. info
  • HOUSECROFT, Catherine E. and A. G. SHARPE. Anorganická chemie. Vyd. 1. Praha: Vysoká škola chemicko-technologická v Praze, 2014. xxx, 1119. ISBN 9788070808726. info
Teaching methods
The course is composed of 22 lectures. There are two lectures 2 hr each per week.
Assessment methods
The course consists of 22 lectures. The final examination is a written test (2 hrs).
Language of instruction
Czech
Follow-Up Courses
Further Comments
Study Materials
The course can also be completed outside the examination period.
The course is taught annually.
Listed among pre-requisites of other courses

Zobrazit další předměty

The course is also listed under the following terms Autumn 2007 - for the purpose of the accreditation, Autumn 1999, Autumn 2010 - only for the accreditation, Autumn 2000, Autumn 2001, Autumn 2002, Autumn 2003, Autumn 2005, Autumn 2007, Autumn 2009, Autumn 2010, Autumn 2011, Autumn 2011 - acreditation, Autumn 2012, Autumn 2013, Autumn 2014, Autumn 2015, Autumn 2016, autumn 2017, Autumn 2018, Autumn 2019.
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