GA801 Chemical principles of geological processes

Faculty of Science
Autumn 2023
Extent and Intensity
1/1/0. 3 credit(s). Type of Completion: zk (examination).
Taught in person.
Mgr. Pavel Pracný, Ph.D. (lecturer)
Mgr. et Mgr. Veronika Synková (assistant)
Guaranteed by
Mgr. Pavel Pracný, Ph.D.
Department of Geological Sciences - Earth Sciences Section - Faculty of Science
Contact Person: Ing. Jana Pechmannová
Supplier department: Department of Geological Sciences - Earth Sciences Section - Faculty of Science
Tue 8:00–8:50 G2,02003, Tue 9:00–9:50 G2,02003
Prerequisites (in Czech)
! GA800 Advanced Geochemistry && ( (!( PROGRAM ( B - GE )|| PROGRAM ( N - GE )|| PROGRAM ( D - GE4 )|| PROGRAM ( D - GE )|| PROGRAM ( C - CV ))) || ( NOW ( G0101 Occupational healt and safety )&& NOW ( C7777 Handling chemical substances )))
Course Enrolment Limitations
The course is also offered to the students of the fields other than those the course is directly associated with.
fields of study / plans the course is directly associated with
there are 32 fields of study the course is directly associated with, display
Course objectives
The course goal is extension of inorganic chemistry knowledge and improvement of chemical thinking. The course is predominantly aimed at students of geochemistry. It seeks the tight relation between chemical and geochemical topics. The course is based on quantum chemistry and bond theory. On background of periodic law, there are discussed in detail geochemically attractive elements of A-groups, transition metals (B-groups), lanthanides, and actinides.
Learning outcomes
After the course, the student is able to:
to use proper inorganic nomenclature;
solve basic chemical calculations;
compare main groups of anorganic substances;
analyze chemical fundamentals of geological processes.
  • Elementary particles: Electron, proton, neutron, and photon. Electromagnetic spectrum, wavelength. Radio-, micro-, infrared-, visible-, ultraviolet-, X-ray, and gamma- waveband.

    Atoms: Nucleus, shells and subshells. Nuclides and isotopes. Atomic mass number, atomic weights. Element abundance: solar system, Earth's crust, meteorites. Stable isotopes. Radioactivity, radioelements decay. Alpha, beta, and gamma radiation. Parent and daughter elements, half-life.

    Quantum theory: Quantum mechanics, energy levels. Excitation of atoms, ionization and excitation potential. Absorption and emission of photon. Spectral lines. Wave mechanics, equation of wave.

    Schrödinger's wave equation: Wave function. Derivation and solution of Schrödinger's equation. Principal, subsidiary, magnetic, and spin quantum numbers. Pauli's exclusion principle. s-, p-, d-, and f-orbitals.

    Building-up principle: Periodical law, periodic table. Rows (periods) and column (groups). Hund's rule.

    Chemical bonding: Valences. Covalent and ionic bonds, electronegativity, polarization of bond, partial charges. Hybridization. Molecular orbitals. H2 molecule, HF molecule. Hydrogen bond. Van der Waals bonds.

    Coordination bond: Vacant orbitals and ligands. Hybridization of central atom. Molecular orbitals. Ligand field theory, coordination numbers. Complexes, stability constants, geochemical significance.

    Group IA and IIA elements: Geochemically important elements, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, valences, behavior, reactions, minerals, analyses of formulas. Rb-Sr system, K-Ar system. Magnesium. Brucite trictaedral layer.

    Group IIIA elements: Geochemically important elements, valences, behavior, reactions, minerals, analyses of formulas. Aluminium. Gibbsite dioctaedral layer.

    Group IVA elements, carbon: Carbon, carbon isotopes, carbon dioxide, carbonates, carbon cycle.

    Organic matter: Proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, lignin, organic substances in recent sediments and sedimentary rocks, petroleum, peat, lignite, bituminous and anthracite coal, radiocarbon system.

    Group IVA elements, silicon: Silicon, silicates, aluminosilicates, minerals, analyses of formulas. CIPW norm.

    Group IVA, VA, VIA, and VIIA elements: Geochemically important elements, behavior, reactions, minerals, analyses of formulas. Stable isotopes. Oxygen isotopes. Nitrogen isotopes. Nitrogen cycle. Sulfur isotopes. Sulfur cycle.

    Inert gasses: He, Ne, Ar. Kr, Xe. Radon, radioactive decay, isopes.

    Transition elements (d-elements): Three lines of d-elements. Behavior, reactions, complexes, minerals.

    Inner-transition elements (f-elements): Lanthanoids (rare-earth group): Rare-Earth elements (REE). Character, behaviour, geochemical significance. Light (LREE) and heavy (HREE) rare-Earth elements, chondrite-normalized ratio, MORB-basalts. Negative and positive europium anomaly. Sm-Nd isotope system. Actinoids: Nonstable isotopes, uranium, thorium. Gamma spectrometry. U-Th-Pb system.

    recommended literature
  • Přehled středoškolské chemie. Edited by Jiří Vacík. 2. vyd. Praha: SPN - pedagogické nakladatelství, 1999. 365 s. ISBN 80-7235-108-7. info
  • KOTLÍK, Bohumír and Květoslava RŮŽIČKOVÁ. Chemie v kostce : pro střední školy. 4. vyd. Havlíčkův Brod: Fragment, 2005. 119 s. ISBN 8025300315. info
  • STOKER, Howard Stephen. Introduction to chemical principles. 3rd ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing, 1990. 690 s. ISBN 0-02-417761-X. info
  • COTTON, F. Albert. Advanced inorganic chemistry. 6th ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1999. xv, 1355. ISBN 0471199575. info
  • GREENWOOD, N. N. and Alan EARNSHAW. Chemistry of the elements. Second edition. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1997. xxii, 1341. ISBN 0750633654. info
    not specified
  • GILL, Robin. Chemical fundamentals of geology and evinronmental geoscience. Third edition. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley Blackwell, 2015. xii, 267. ISBN 9780470656655. info
Teaching methods
lectures, class exercises, homework
Assessment methods
Tests, homeworks, final written test
Language of instruction
Further comments (probably available only in Czech)
Study Materials
The course is taught once in two years.
Information on the per-term frequency of the course: Bude otevřeno v podzimním semestru 2021/2022.
The course is also listed under the following terms Autumn 2003, Autumn 2009, Autumn 2011, Autumn 2011 - acreditation, Autumn 2012, Autumn 2013, Autumn 2014, Autumn 2015, autumn 2017, Autumn 2019, autumn 2021.
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