F9051 Elements of physical theories 1

Faculty of Science
Autumn 2010 - only for the accreditation
Extent and Intensity
1/1. 3 credit(s). Recommended Type of Completion: z (credit). Other types of completion: k (colloquium).
prof. RNDr. Martin Černohorský, CSc. (lecturer)
prof. RNDr. Martin Černohorský, CSc. (seminar tutor)
Guaranteed by
prof. RNDr. Michal Lenc, Ph.D.
Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics – Physics Section – Faculty of Science
Course Enrolment Limitations
The course is also offered to the students of the fields other than those the course is directly associated with.
fields of study / plans the course is directly associated with
Course objectives
The aim of the course is (1) to be able to describe with good understanding the general principles (1a) of the methodology of building up the concepts and (1b) of goings and procedures leading in formulation of the laws; (2) to apply them on the structure of newtonian mechanics and optionally on other theories.
Historical notes and actual remarks are organic parts of the course.
  • 1. The world of material objects. The psychical world. The real immaterial world.
  • 2. Building of concepts in physics and creation of concepts in mathematics. Empiricism. Experiment. Formal operation.
  • 3. Interaction. Mass. Celerity–acceleration, momentum–acmomentation. Quantitative characteristic of the interaction. Force.
  • 4. Equivalence of the laws. Zero acmomentation, conservation of momentum, Newton's third law of the motion.
  • 5. Building-up a theory. From the interaction and Newton's third and second laws to the theorems about momentum and angular momentum. Conservation of momentum and of angular momentum. Newton's mechanics and newtonian mechanics.
  • 6. Energy. From the second axiom to the conservation of mechanical energy of two-particle systems. Thomson's definition of energy. Energy-conservation principle.
  • 7. Regularities. Definition. Natural reality. Rule. Law. Principle. Axiom. Synonymics and homonymics of physical terms. Statement, hypothesis, proposition, thesis, theorem, corollary.
  • 8. Newton's axiomatics of mechanics. Reduction of six laws of motion to three axioms and commentaries to them. (Definitiones I-XII. Axiomata, sive Leges Motus. Colorraria I-V.)
  • 9. Translation-rotation content of Newton's formulation of his first axiom. The problem of redundancy of the first axiom. Period dependent rightfulness of Newton's axiomatics. Structure of Newton's mechanics.
  • 10. Einstein's deduction of the relationship energy–mass (1905).
  • 11. Physical entities. Material objects, radiation. Field. Matter. Annihilation of particles. Materialization of radiation.
  • 12. Equivalence principles. Gravitational mass–inertial mass, gravitational field–acceleration of the coordinate system, energy–mass, mass–volume.
  • During the classes the student obtains printed aids: (1) Facsimilia of selected pages from uneasily accessible literature. (2) Czech translation of the facsimilia if they are not in English. (3) Sheets to special topics.
  • The conception of the course uses first af all the following sources:
  • 1. Newton, I.: PHILOSOPHIAE NATURALIS PRINCIPIA MATHEMATICA. Editio ultima. Amstaelodami, Sumptibus Societatis, 1723.
  • 2. Herivel, J.: THE BACKGROUND TO NEWTON'S PRINCIPIA. A Study of Newton's Dynamical Researches in the Years 1664–84. Oxford University Press 1965. 337 p. Pp. 29, 30-31, 77-86, 304-326.
  • 3. Newton, I.: THE PRINCIPIA. Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. A New Translation by I. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman assisted by Julia Budenz. Preceded by A Guide to Newton's Principia by I. Bernard Cohen. University of California Press. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, 1999.
  • 4. Mach, E.: Die Mechanik in ihrer Entwickelung historisch-kritisch dargestellt. Leipzig, F. A. Brockhaus, 1883. 496 S.
  • 5. Einstein, A.: Ist die Trägheit eines Körpers von seinem Energieinhalt abhängig? Ann. d. Phys. 18 (1905) 639-641.
  • 6. Černohorský, M.: Newtonova formulace prvního pohybového zákona. Pokroky matematiky, fyziky a astronomie 20 (1975) 344-349.
  • 7. Černohorský, M.: The rotation in Newton's wording of his first law of motion. In: Kamiński W. A. (red.): Proceedings of the Lublin Tercentary Celebration Isaac Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, 15-17 October 1987, Lublin, Poland. World Scientific Publ. Co., Singapore-New Jersey-Hong Kong, 1988. 221 p. Pp. 28-46.
  • HALLIDAY, David, Robert RESNICK and Jearl WALKER. Fyzika :vysokoškolská učebnice obecné fyziky. Vyd. 1. Brno: VUTIUM, 2000, xxiv, 1198. ISBN 8171962147. info
  • Informace týkající se literatury jsou uvedeny na závěr Osnovy.
  • Information concerning the literature is to be found at the end of the Syllabus.
Teaching methods
Lecture with discussions
Assessment methods
Type of classwork seminar (workshop) with lectures and discussions. Student's activities: Participation in discussions, short assigned oral presentations (10 minutes), written tests ad hoc.
Language of instruction
Further comments (probably available only in Czech)
The course is taught annually.
The course is taught: every week.
The course is also listed under the following terms Autumn 2007 - for the purpose of the accreditation, Autumn 2001, Autumn 2002, Autumn 2003, Autumn 2004, Autumn 2005, Autumn 2006, Autumn 2007, Autumn 2008, Autumn 2009, Autumn 2010, Autumn 2011, Autumn 2011 - acreditation, spring 2012 - acreditation, Autumn 2012, Autumn 2013, Autumn 2014, Autumn 2015, Autumn 2016, autumn 2017, Autumn 2018, Autumn 2019.