Bi6871 Health Risks

Faculty of Science
Spring 2021
Extent and Intensity
2/0/0. 2 credit(s) (plus extra credits for completion). Type of Completion: zk (examination).
Teacher(s)
prof. RNDr. Jiřina Hofmanová, CSc. (lecturer)
doc. RNDr. Alena Hyršlová Vaculová, Ph.D. (lecturer)
prof. RNDr. Alois Kozubík, CSc. (lecturer)
Mgr. Jiřina Procházková, Ph.D. (lecturer)
Guaranteed by
prof. RNDr. Alois Kozubík, CSc.
Department of Experimental Biology - Biology Section - Faculty of Science
Contact Person: prof. RNDr. Jiřina Hofmanová, CSc.
Supplier department: Department of Experimental Biology - Biology Section - Faculty of Science
Timetable
Mon 1. 3. to Fri 14. 5. Thu 9:00–10:50 online_B3
Prerequisites
SOUHLAS
Required basic knowledge of biochemistry, cellular physiology and molecular biology. Associated with lectures of Physiology of cell systems and Mechanisms of carcinogenesis.
Course Enrolment Limitations
The course is also offered to the students of the fields other than those the course is directly associated with.
fields of study / plans the course is directly associated with
there are 6 fields of study the course is directly associated with, display
Course objectives
The aim of the course is to acquaint students with the information about causes of the development of selected disorders and diseases, especially so-called civilization diseases, such as cancer, inflammation, allergies, stress, lung, liver and cardiovascular diseases, neurological and psychological disorders, including approaches and methods of their research, and selected epidemiology studies. It is focused especially on the impact of environmental factors (chemical and biological) on human health, the role of diet, lifestyle, and the use of knowledge in the prevention of diseases. Students will also learn about the existence and regulation of the body as a hierarchical system, essential processes necessary to maintain its normal functions, and factors that may interfere with these functions.
Learning outcomes
At the end of the course students should be able to: recognize the most important chemical and biological environmental factors and their impacts on human health at the level of specific organs as well as organisms as a whole, including possibilities of disease prevention; describe specific dietary factors and their association with etiology of some serious so-called civilization diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, allergies or stress; understand the view of the organism as a hierarchical system and what are the basic processes necessary for maintenance of its homeostasis; interpret and use knowledge of environmental factors influencing human health and of possibilities of disease prevention; explain recent results of epidemiologic and scientific studies of given topic; learn the ability to elaborate and present assigned topic.
Syllabus
  • - Causes of initiation and promotion of civilization diseases - genetic predisposition, non-genetic causes. Type of studies (epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies, population screening), incidence of cancer and other diseases (in the Czech Republic, in the world), information sources - yearbook of health in ČR, SVOD, NOR. Problems of specific types of studies. Carcinogenesis - main cancer promotion factors, genetic and non-genetic factors, endogenous factors - the role of hormones. Civilization diseases and lifestyle. - Diet - energy balance, dietary lipids – fibre and butyrate, essential polyunsaturated fatty acids and their impact on human health and (cardiovascular diseases, foetal development, depressions and neurodegenerative diseases, cancer). Epidemiological and experimental studies. - Chemoprevention, therapy, paliative treatments, predictive onkology – detection of specific parameters, comparison of methods and interpretation of results. - The role of environmental factors in the development of pulmonary diseases. Toxic agents in the air and cigarette smoke. Smoking and the human health and disease, especially lung cancer and selected chronic pulmonary diseases; related statistics and epidemiology studies, health risk assessments. Epigenetic changes induced by smoking and their role in carcinogenesis, overall impact on human health, examples of recent studies. - The role of environmental factors in the development of liver diseases. Toxic chemicals, alcohol, selected dietary factors, viral hepatitis etc., and their role in the development of liver cancer and selected chronic liver diseases; related statistics and epidemiology studies. Liver damage and its overall impact on human health, examples of recent studies, health risk assessments. - Environmental factors associated with the developmental and chronic neurotoxicity. Emerging/ chronic chemical and biological factors commonly present in our environment and contributing to higher prevalence of neurological impairments and disorders in children and elders. Sources, types of exposures, epidemiological studies showing deleterious effects induced by their chronic and cummulative character. Neurological diseases and deficits, cognitive functions disorders, hyperactivity disorders and learning deficits, autism, ADHD, Parkinson disease vs. parkinsonims, Alzheimer disease, depression. - Environmental factors underlying development and/or transgenerational transmission of oncogenic mutations. Oncogenic viruses, the roles bacterias play in oncogenesis. - The role of microbiota in the development of neurological/ neuropathological and cancer diseases. - Homeostasis, health and disease - basic terms, short introduction. Negative and positive feedback - significance for homeostasis, homeostasis on the cell, tissue and system levels. Organism as hierarchic system, cooperation of nervous, endocrine and humoral systems.. Stressas a model example, its causes and consequences. Prevention of functional damage of organism and diseases vs. selected therapeutic possibilities.
Literature
    recommended literature
  • Food and Health in Europe: a new basis for action, WHO Regional Publications European Series, No. 96, 2006
  • Wilhelm Z. a kol., Výživa v onkologii, (Nutrition in oncology) Brno 2004
  • ZADÁK, Zdeněk. Výživa v intenzivní péči. 2. rozš. a aktualiz. vyd. Praha: Grada, 2009. 542 s. ISBN 9788024728445. info
  • FOŘT, Petr. Co jíme a pijeme? Výživa pro 3. tisícitletí. (What we eat and drink? Nutrition for 3rd millenium) 1. vyd. Praha: Olympia, 2003. 246 s. ISBN 80-7033-814-8.
  • Jak vzdorovat rakovině. (How to resist cancer) Edited by Olga Dostálová. [1. vyd.]. Praha: Grada-Avicenum, 1993. 205 s. ISBN 80-7169-040-6.
  • Free radicals, aging, and degenerative diseases (Eds. J. E. Johnson, Jr., R. Walford, D. Harman, J. Miquel), Alan. R. Liss, Inc., New York 1986
  • Speciální vybraná reviews a vědecké články (Thematic reviews and research papers)
Teaching methods
Basic lectures by teachers and associated discussion. Study of selected research topics and their presentation by students with class discussion.
Assessment methods
Attendance of the lectures is not mandatory but recommended for understanding the topics, discussion with other students and creating and expression student's own opinion. Prerequisite for the course completion is preparation of short presentation for class colleagues and discussion of assigned topic. The final examination is based on written exam evaluated by the teacher. Students must answer minimally 50percent of questions covering the topics presented in the lectures.
Language of instruction
Czech
Follow-Up Courses
Further comments (probably available only in Czech)
Study Materials
The course is taught annually.
Information on course enrolment limitations: V období jaro 2021 je předmět vypisován primárně studentům, kteří jej mají ve studijním plánu jako povinný. Na předmět se vztahuje povinnost registrace, bez registrace může být znemožněn zápis předmětu!
The course is also listed under the following terms Spring 2008 - for the purpose of the accreditation, Spring 2011 - only for the accreditation, Spring 2003, Spring 2004, Spring 2005, Spring 2006, Spring 2007, Spring 2008, Spring 2009, Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Spring 2012, spring 2012 - acreditation, Spring 2013, Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, spring 2018, Spring 2019, Spring 2020, Spring 2022.
  • Enrolment Statistics (recent)
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