Bi1060 Plant cytology and anatomy

Faculty of Science
autumn 2017
Extent and Intensity
2/0/0. 2 credit(s) (plus extra credits for completion). Type of Completion: zk (examination).
doc. RNDr. Marie Kummerová, CSc. (lecturer)
doc. RNDr. Marie Kummerová, CSc.
Department of Experimental Biology - Biology Section - Faculty of Science
Contact Person: Naděžda Bílá
Supplier department: Department of Experimental Biology - Biology Section - Faculty of Science
Mon 18. 9. to Fri 15. 12. Tue 8:00–9:50 A11/132
Prerequisites (in Czech)
! Bi6180 Plant biology
Course Enrolment Limitations
The course is also offered to the students of the fields other than those the course is directly associated with.
Fields of study the course is directly associated with
there are 6 fields of study the course is directly associated with, display
Course objectives
At the end of the course student will be able to:
describe the structure and functions of plant cells, tissues and organs;
explain relationship between the structure and functions of plant cells, tissues and organs;
relate anatomy and environmental factors affecting it.
  • Plant cytology: Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Plant cell structure and function. The importance of compartmental organization. Protoplasmic and nonprotoplasmic components of plant cell. The nucleus, plastids, mitochondria. Cytoplasm. Endomembrane system: endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, microbodies (glyoxysomes, peroxisomes), vacuoles. Membranes, models of membrane components of plant cell. Relationships of endomembranes. Semiautonomous organelles: mitochondria, sites of respiration and chloroplasts, sites of photosynthesis. The origin of eukaryotes: endosymbiotic hypothesis. Ribosomes. The cytoskeleton: microtubules, microfilaments. Movement in cell. The cell surface: cell wall, apoplasmic free space. Intercellular junction. Plasmodesms and symplast. The cell cycle: mitotic (M) phase and interphase (G1, S and G2 phases). The division of cell nucleus - amitosis, mitosis, phases of mitosis, the mitotic spindle; meiosis, comparison of mitosis and meiosis. The cell division - cytokinesis, control of cell division. Cell elongation and differentiation.

  • Histology: Types of plant cells and tissues. Simple and complex tissues. Tissue systems: meristems, epidermal, water-conducting and ground tissues, their structure and functions.

  • Organology: Anatomy of a flowering plant. Primary structure of vegetative organs - root, stem, leaf. Indeterminate plant growth. Primary tissues of roots: stele (radial vascular bundle), root cortex, endodermis, rhizodermis. Primary growth of roots, root tip and root cap. Pericycle and production of lateral roots. Root hairs. Primary tissues of stems: primary growth of shoots. Terminal bud, shoot tip and leaf primordia. Turn of vascular bundles to collateral ones in hypocotyl. Anatomy of leaf: mesophyll, epidermis with guard cells, venation. Comparison of monocots and dicots. Secondary growth: lateral meristems - vascular and cork cambium. Secondary tissues of stems, heteroxylic and homoxylic secondary xylem. Cork, phelloderm, periderm. Secondary tissues of roots, specific foundation of vascular cambium in root stele. Location of primary and secondary xylem.

  • BÓZNER, Anton. Cytológia : učebnica pre prírodovedecké fakulty. 1. vyd. Martin: Osveta, 1986. 257 s. info
  • HUDÁK, J. and A KOL. Biológia rastlín. Bratislava: SPN, 1989. info
  • LUXOVÁ, Marie and Alexander LUX. Anatómia rastlín. Bratislava: PN, 1993. info
  • PAZOUREK, Jaroslav. Atlas anatomické stavby rostlin. Praha: Karolinum, 1992. info
  • PROCHÁZKA, Stanislav, Jiří ŠEBÁNEK, Jan GLOSER and Zdeněk SLADKÝ. Morfologie a fyziologie rostlin. (Plant Morphology and Physiology.). Brno: Mendelova zemědělská a lesnická univerzita, 1998. 242 pp. info
  • KOUSALOVÁ, Ivana, Marie KUMMEROVÁ and Miroslava VICHERKOVÁ. Praktikum z cytologie a anatomie rostlin. 1. vyd. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 1998. 121 s. ISBN 8021019824. info
  • KOUSALOVÁ, Ivanka, Marie KUMMEROVÁ and Alexander LUX. Terminologický slovník z cytologie a anatomie rostlin. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 2001. info
  • EVERT, Ray Franklin. Esau's plant anatomy : meristems, cells, and tissues of the plant body : their structure, function, and development. 3rd ed. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley-Interscience, 2006. xx, 601. ISBN 0471738433. info
  • DICKISON, William C. Integrative plant anatomy. San Diego: Academic Press, 2000. xvii, 533. ISBN 0122151704. info
Teaching methods
Assessment methods
Written exam.
Language of instruction
Further Comments
The course is taught annually.
Listed among pre-requisites of other courses
Teacher's information
The course is also listed under the following terms Autumn 2007 - for the purpose of the accreditation, Autumn 2010 - only for the accreditation, Autumn 2002, Autumn 2003, Autumn 2004, Autumn 2005, Autumn 2006, Autumn 2007, Autumn 2008, Autumn 2010, Autumn 2011, Autumn 2011 - acreditation, Autumn 2012, Autumn 2013, Autumn 2014, Autumn 2015, Autumn 2016.
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