LF:aVLZP11XX Zdraví, prev., zdravot.- SRZ - Informace o předmětu
aVLZP11XX Zdraví, prevence, zdravotnictví - SRZLékařská fakulta
- 0. 0 kr. Ukončení: SRZk.
- prof. MUDr. Bc. Zuzana Derflerová Brázdová, DrSc. (přednášející)
doc. MUDr. Jindřich Fiala, CSc. (přednášející)
Mgr. Pavlína Kaňová, Ph.D. (přednášející)
MUDr. Marie Kolářová, CSc. (přednášející)
Mgr. Bc. Michal Koščík, Ph.D. (přednášející)
doc. Ing. Martin Krsek, CSc., MSc (přednášející)
Mgr. Aleš Peřina, Ph.D. (přednášející)
Mgr. Jana Fialová, Ph.D. (pomocník)
Ing. Veronika Išová (pomocník)
- prof. MUDr. Bc. Zuzana Derflerová Brázdová, DrSc.
Ústav veřejného zdraví - Teoretická pracoviště - Lékařská fakulta
- aVLFA0822p Farmakologie II - přednáška && aVLNE9X1p Neurologie - přednáška && aVLPY9X1p Psychiatrie - přednáška && aVLDV7X1p Dermatovenerologie - před. && aVLAM9X1p Intenzivní medicína - předn. && aVLVL7X61c Vnitřní lékařství - blok 1 && aVLVL9X62c Vnitřní lékařství - blok 2 && aVLVL9X63c Vnitřní lékařství - blok 3 && aVLVL9X64c Vnitřní lékařství - blok 4 && aVLVL9X65c Vnitřní lékařství - blok 5 && aVLIN9X22p Infekční nemoci II && aVLON9X1p Klinická onkologie - př && VYCET ( 1 , aVLAL091 Anesteziologie a léčba bolesti , aVLDO091 Klinická onkologie v pediatrii , aVLKF101 Klinická farmakologie , aVLKB091 Clinical Biochemistry , aVLFP091 Fyziologie a patologie novoroz ) && aVLCH9X33c Chirurgie III - cvičení && aVLCJ0888 Čeština pro cizince VIII && aVLSP03X Samostatná práce-VL
Prerequisites according to the MU study and examination regulations.
- Omezení zápisu do předmětu
- Předmět je určen pouze studentům mateřských oborů.
- Mateřské obory/plány
- General Medicine (program LF, M-GM)
- Všeobecné lékařství (angl.) (program LF, M-VL)
- Všeobecné lékařství (program LF, M-VL) (2)
- Cíle předmětu
- To understand the principles of relationship between human and environment, life conditions and life style. Factors for prevention and promotion of health. Prevention: types, different significance for health prevention and promotion.
The most important non-communicable diseases: epidemiology, aetiology, prevention.
- PREVENTIVE MEDICINE AND HYGIENE:
- 1. METHODS OF MEASUREMENT OF NUTRITIONAL INTAKE: Questionnaire and laboratory methods - presentation. Self-evaluation of short-term recalls and long-term nutritional habits. .
- 2. PREVENTION OF THE MUSCULOSKELETICAL DISTURBANCES: ergonomic approaches to the optimalization of working conditions. Risk of the sedentary position. Exercises lowering the static load. .
- 3. PREVENTION OF THE STRESS: Tests for self-availability to be stressed by the obvious load. Techniques for relaxation.
- 4. TREATMENT OF TOBACCO ADDICTION.
- 5. PROGRAMMES OF DRUGS ABUSE PRIMARY PREVENTION.
- 6. NUTRITION AND FOOD: food labelling, nutritional and health recommendations, nutritional safety .
- 7. ENVIRONMENT AND HEALTH: noise, light, radiation, living, water.
- 8. TOXICOLOGY IN PREVENTION.
- 9. WORK AND HEALTH.
- 10. EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY ABOUT THE NUTRITION OF TARGET POPULATIONS: proposals for the development of questionnaires, selection of a population sample, use of standardised questionnaires, digitalized information and data, evaluation of obtained results at individual and group basis.
- 11. SPECIAL TOXIKOLOGY: power point presentations on chosen chemical xenobiotics (Pb, Hg, Cr, Cd, toluene, benzene, trichloretylene): their sources in the environment and working exposure, way of exposures, effects on humans. Clinical manifestations of poisoning, therapy. Primary and secondary prevention.
- 12. KOMPLEX PREVENTION OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES: anamnesis, clinical and biochemical measurements of the main risk factors (smoking, nutrition, physical activity, blood lipids, anthropometry); evaluation of the results, preventive proposals.
- 13. SMOKING CESSATION AMONG THE HOSPITALIZED PATIENTS: Practical application of the 4A programme used for smoking cessation at some clinics.
- 14. BREAST-FEEDING PROMOTION: Practical application of the knowledge about the postnatal cure for newborns with the concern on the breast-feeding promotion.
- 15. EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES WITH DIFFERENT AIMS: Preference of the different foods among children. The frequencies of the fast food consumption among children. Approaches of different target population groups to the non-smoking activities. Frequency of the fruit and vegetables consumption, dairy products among children.
- 16. CONSEQUENCES OF PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO SMOKING, during childhood and adulthood. Review of scientific literature.
- 17. BASIC OF RISK ASSESMENT, MANAGEMENT AND COMMUNICATION: examples of case-studies.
- 18. MAN AND ENVIRONMENT: Physical, biological, chemical and social factors in macro- and microenvironment. Their interactions. Ways of adaptation and compensation for keeping the homeostasis. "health" and "disease", their determinants.
- 19. PREVENTION: primary and secondary prevention, tasks and aims. The most important world and Czech primary prevention programmes.
- 20. NOISE: sources, impact on health, possibilities for control.
- 21. LIGHT AND ILLUMINATION: physiology of seeing, optimal working conditions. The physiologic sense of colours.
- 22. RADIATION: different types, their sources and impact on human health. Possibilities of control.
- 23. COMPLEX OF MICROCLIMATE: external and internal conditions. Ways of thermoregulation. Work places with extreme microclimate, rules for drinking schedule. Long-term and short-term thermal load.
- 24. BIOLOGICAL RHYTMS: circadian and other types, their influence on the performances. Shift work as a risk for health. Active and passive rest. Hygiene of sleeping.
- 25. AIR AND HEALTH: the most common contaminants of ambient air, their sources and human exposure. Smog. Health consequences of the exposure to polluted air.
- 26. BASIC TOXICOLOGY: ways of exposure, intake, uptake; metabolism of xenobiotics, genetic polymorphism in the microsomal enzymes; excretion. Health insure caused by chemical exposure, carcinogenesis. Similarities and differences between children and adults in toxicology.
- 27. HOUSING AND HEALTH: the most common risk factors at homes, health consequences of exposure (housing-related diseases, sick building syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity). Ventilation, types and sense.
- 28. WATER AND HEALTH: the hygienic limits for drinking water, indicators of sewage contaminants. Trace elements in drinking water. Diseases related to water pollution. The principles for safety source of water.
- 29. NUTRITION AND HEALTH: diseases related to malnutrition and food contaminants. The role of nutrition in health promotion. Dietary guidelines. The ways for measurement of nutritional habits.
- 30. WASTE AND HEALTH: the types of waste products, their sources. Hygienic rules for safe destruction of waste products.
- 31. NATURAL AND MAN-MADE CHEMICALS IN ENVIRONMENT: their types, point and areal sources. Environment in the Czech Republic. Principles of the monitoring of environmental pollutants. "Natural pesticides".
- 32. SMOKING AND HEALTH: Smoking as the most important single preventable risk factor of premature morbidity and mortality. Dependence on smoking as a psychiatric disease. Involuntary smoking and health consequences of exposure.
- 33. WORKING AND HEALTH: risk occupational factors and related diseases. The rules for safety of occupational environment and health protection of workers.
- 34. STRESS AND HEALTH: physiologic response on stress situations. Stress- related diseases. Rules for the prevention of stress.
- 35. NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES: epidemiology, aetiology, prevention; Cardiovascular diseases, Cancer, Respiratory diseases, Allergy, Diabetes mellitus, Osteoporosis.
- EPIDEMIOLOGY OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES:
- 1. General information about the course Epidemiology of infectious diseases. Goals of the epidemiology.
- 2. The basic knowledge of epidemiology - understanding the epidemiological methodology (descriptive, analytic, experimental epidemiology).
- 3. Epidemic process; aetiology and risk factors of epidemic diseases.
- 4. Form of sources of infection.
- 5. Contagiosity in particular stage of the disease.
- 6. Cariership of pathogenic microorganisms. Animals as source of infection.
- 7. Transmission of infectious diseases, phases of transmission.
- 8. Susceptibility of the population to the infection.
- 9. Active and passive vaccination.
- 10. Natural, social-economic factors.
- 11. Global epidemiology, epidemiologic surveillance.
- 12. Programme of eradication and elimination of infectious diseases.
- 13. Principles of control of infectious diseases - elimination of the source, interruption of transmission of infectious agents, measures in a focus of infection.
- 14. Surveillance of nosocomial infections (NI), aetiology NI, risk factors of acquiring NI, sources and localization NI, the principles of control NI.
- 15. Decontamination, disinfection and sterilization.
- 16. Epidemiological characteristics of the intestinal infections and prevention of their spreading.
- 17. Epidemiological characteristics of the airborne infections and prevention of their spreading.
- 18. Epidemiological characteristics of blood infections and prevention of their spreading.
- 19. Animals as sources of infection.
- 20. Infections of the skin and superficial mucous membrane - epidemiological characteristics and preventing their transmission.
- 21. Infections as occupational diseases and their prevention.
- 22. Infections in travelling and their prevention.
- 23. Epidemiological inspection in hospitals; the monitoring of the microbiological quality of the hospital environment.
- 24. The control of the disinfection and sterilization. Interpretation of the results.
- SOCIAL / COMMUNITY MEDICINE AND PUBLIC HEALTH:
- 1. Public health - characteristics and general information.
- 2. Healthcare system (content, features, surroundings, current issues of healthcare system development).
- 3. Health situation in the Czech Republic, its current development and international comparisons.
- 4. Mortality as an indicator of health (health indicators based on death records, life expectancy, health aggregates).
- 5. Measuring disease frequency in the population (incidence, prevalence, mean duration of illness, relationships between indicators of morbidity).
- 6. Demography vs epidemiological transformation.
- 7. Social determinants of health.
- 8. Causes of increase in health care spending.
- 9. Health economics. The concept, theoretical background, main areas of interest (subjects).
- 10. The market and health care (market failure).
- 11. Types of healthcare systems in the world, their strengths and weaknesses.
- 12. Medical insurance (public health insurance, private health insurance).
- 13. Healthcare financing (sources of finance, structure of cash expenditure on health care reimbursement forms).
- 14. Effectiveness and efficiency, explanation of terms, their measurement and evaluation.
- 15. Accessibility of health care services.
- 16. The quality of health care, definitions, characteristics, possibilities for evaluation.
- 17. Evaluation of health care services (importance and evaluation methods, used indicators and their interpretation).
- 18. Medical needs (the needs, requirements and consumption of services).
- 19. Prevention and its obstacles (motivation to prevent, categorization prevention, prevention of barriers).
- 20. Primary care and self-care.
- 21. Medical education; role, importance and types of health literacy.
- 22. Educational program (preparation, implementation, evaluation).
- 23. Forms of decentralization.
- 24. Privatization of health care facilities.
- 25. Medical informatics and its application (information systems).
- 26. Cumulative assessment of the activities of the healthcare system (performance - responsiveness, decent financing, stewardship, methodology, interpretation).
- 27. The role of the state in health care.
- 28. The government protecting the public health.
- 29. Healthcare policy (term, focus, tools and healthcare policy goals). Regionalization and decentralization.
- 30. The European healthcare policy (source and basis of European healthcare policy, program WHO Health 2020).
- MEDICAL LAW AND HEALTHCARE MANAGEMENT:
- 1. Management theory and management of healthcare facilities.
- 2. State administration and local government in healthcare. Estates chamber, origin and historical development, current role. The basic rules of professional conduct, rights and obligations of members of the ČLK (Czech Medical Chamber).
- 3. The role of law in health care; basic legal standards in health care.
- 4. The rights and duties of citizens in health care (citizens' rights, patient rights, patient's right to information).
- 5. The provider of health care services, operating conditions; standardization and accreditation of health care providers; system providers, health care services, types and forms of health care.
- 6. The system of medical professions, the basic assumptions practice medicine; medical specialized education, lifelong learning for physicians.
- 7. Basic duties of health care professionals.
- 8. Lex artis (state of the art), definition, legal basis for liability.
- 9. Informed consent for medical procedures, denial of medical care, requirements for a negative reverse (denial of health care).
- 10. Legal liability in health care (civil liability of health care providers; criminal liability of doctors, the disciplinary responsibility of a doctor, offenses and administrative violations in health care)
- PREVENTIVE MEDICINE AND HYGIENE:
- povinná literatura
- ŽÁČEK, A. and J. HOLČÍK. Sociální lékařství II, Úvod do veřejného zdravotnictví. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 1992. 130 pp. ISBN 80-210-0375-8.
- KOTULÁN, Jaroslav a Drahoslava HRUBÁ. Preventivní lékařství SO. 1. vyd. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 1993. info
- doporučená literatura
- Required literature for PREVENTIVE MEDICINE AND HYGIENE
- 1. Lener J et al: Medical hygiene. Prague - Czech Republic: Vydavatesltví Karolinum; 1997. pp 1-128.
- 2. Bártová J, Havránek J, Hrnčíř E, Lener J, Petrová K: General and environmental hygiene. Edited by J. Bártová. Prague - Czech Republic: 3rd Medical Faculty Charles University Prague; 1994. pp 5-87.
- 3. Varkey P: Mayo clinic preventive medicine and public health board review. Edited by Prathibha Varkey. New York - United States: Mayo Clinic Scientific Press - Oxford University Press; 2010. pp 111-232.
- 4. Brázdová Z, Fiala J: Dietary guidelines in the Czech Republic. Brno: Acta Facultatis Medicae Universitas Masarykianae; 1998.
- 5. Bonita R, Beaglehole R, Kjellström: Basic epidemiology. 2nd edition. Geneva - Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2006. pp 99-177.
- 6. www.who.int (information not found in the books).
- Required literature for EPIDEMIOLOGY
- 1. Bakoss P, Baška T, Bazovská S, Kmety E, Maďar R et al: Compendium of epidemiology. Edited by Pavol Bakoss. Bratislava - Slovak Republic: Comenius University Bratislava; 1999. pp 3-138.
- 2. Stone DB, Armstrong WR, Macrina DM, Pankau JW: Introduction to epidemiology. Dubuque, IA - USA: Brown & Benchmark Publishers; 1996. pp 22-63, 115-150.
- 3. Farmer R, Lawrenson R, Miller D: Epidemiology and public health medicine. 5th edition. Oxford - U.K.: Blackwell Publishing; 2004. pp 7-13, 91-126.
- 4. Bonita R, Beaglehole R, Kjellström: Basic epidemiology. 2nd edition. Geneva - Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2006. pp 117-131.
- 5. www.who.int (information not found in the books).
- 6. www.cdc.gov (information not found in the books).
- 7. http://ecdc.europa.eu/en/Pages/home.aspx (information not found in the books).
- Required literature for SOCIAL / COMMUNITY MEDICINE, PUBLIC HEALTH AND HEALTHCARE ADMINISTRATION
- 1. Study material for public health and healthcare administration (20 chapters / questions) CAN BE BORROWED at the Department of Public Health A21, office 321. Students MUST return it back the day of examination in good condition.
- 2. Bonita R, Beaglehole R, Kjellström: Basic epidemiology. 2nd edition. Geneva - Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2006. pp 1-60, 83-113, 165-176.
- 3. Seminar papers (Forty-two) in the subject’s vault VLZP11XX - Public Health State Examination Questions (Group D).
- Recommended literature for PREVENTIVE MEDICINE AND HYGIENE
- Hrubá D: Occupational Medicine Practice. Basic Toxicology. (Fundamental abstracts from textbooks. LF MU: 1997).
- Výukové metody
- Reading and studying ALL REQUIRED LITERATURE.
The Public Health State Examination is an oral examination, in which each student randomly selects a question from every set (group) of questions, as follows:
• Preventive medicine and hygiene.
• Public health.
• Healthcare law, administration and management - 42 seminar papers (public health subjects vault - See the Information System).
- Metody hodnocení
- PUBLIC HEALTH STATE EXAMINATION INFORMATION:
1. To sit for a state examination, it will be required to successfully complete all the prerequisite subjects.
2. The state examination is oral in front of a committee.
3. Students MUST succeed in ALL questions. Failing one question leads to examination failure. In the following term the student must answer a new question from each set again.
4. Each student must register in the Information System (IS) in one of the offered examination terms. The examination has fixed examination terms / dates - (Only during the examination period, except the examination pre-term). No extra-terms will be given.
5. Students registered to an examination term will fail the term if:
a-) arrive late the examination day.
b-) they are not present and previously did not cancel the term in the stipulated periods (see IS).
6. In case of failure, EACH STUDENT CAN RETAKE THE STATE EXAMINATION TWO MORE TIMES, only in given terms (according to Masaryk University study rules).
7. In case of failure during the third term (second resit), the student must repeat the course in the following school year.
8. All state examination questions are based on ALL REQUIRED LITERATURE, seminars and lectures on each examined subject (Social medicine; epidemiology of infectious diseases; preventive medicine; public health; and healthcare law, administration and management).
ACADEMIC MISCONDUCT, PLAGIARISM DETECTION AND UNETHICAL ISSUES:
1. Any attempts of ACADEMIC MISCONDUCT, such as cheating or assisting someone else to cheat during the credit test, will result in disciplinary actions, such as:
a-) You will be required to hand over your examination paper and asked to leave the examination room. This means, you failed the examination (examination term), with the respective score F / 4, on your academic records in the information system.
b-) Opening disciplinary proceedings.
c-) Failing the subject / course.
d-) Expulsion from university.
2. During the examination, it is forbidden to:
a-) Use smart phones / Tablets.
b-) Use laptops.
c-) To wear earphones or headphones (if not medical prescribed).
d-) To talk.
*In such cases, disciplinary actions will be taken (See above numeral 1).
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