aVLFA0822p Farmakologie II - přednáška

Lékařská fakulta
jaro 2023
Rozsah
2/0/0. 30. 4 kr. Ukončení: zk.
Vyučováno prezenčně.
Vyučující
doc. MUDr. Regina Demlová, Ph.D. (přednášející)
doc. PharmDr. Jan Juřica, Ph.D. (přednášející)
Mgr. Petra Amchová, Ph.D. (přednášející)
doc. RNDr. Ladislava Bartošová, Ph.D. (přednášející)
Mgr. Mária Hricková (přednášející)
Mgr. Jana Kubátová, Ph.D. (přednášející)
doc. Mgr. MVDr. Leoš Landa, Ph.D. (přednášející)
Mgr. Kristýna Nosková, Ph.D. (přednášející)
MUDr. Jana Nováková, Ph.D. (přednášející)
MUDr. Jana Pistovčáková, Ph.D. (přednášející)
doc. PharmDr. Jana Rudá, Ph.D. (přednášející)
PharmDr. Jitka Rychlíčková, Ph.D. (přednášející)
Mgr. Barbora Říhová, Ph.D. (přednášející)
PharmDr. Lenka Součková, Ph.D. (přednášející)
doc. PharmDr. Ondřej Zendulka, Ph.D. (přednášející)
MUDr. Róbert Balog (pomocník)
Renata Bláblová (pomocník)
PharmDr. Tomáš Hammer (pomocník)
PharmDr. Eva Klásková (pomocník)
Květoslava Sedlářová (pomocník)
MUDr. Filip Šiška (pomocník)
Mgr. Marta Vyoralová (pomocník)
PharmDr. Katarína Kostolanská (náhr. zkoušející)
Garance
doc. MUDr. Regina Demlová, Ph.D.
Farmakologický ústav - Teoretická pracoviště - Lékařská fakulta
Kontaktní osoba: doc. Mgr. MVDr. Leoš Landa, Ph.D.
Dodavatelské pracoviště: Farmakologický ústav - Teoretická pracoviště - Lékařská fakulta
Předpoklady
aVLFA0721p Farmakologie I - přednáška && aVLPF0622p Pathophysiology II - lecture
Omezení zápisu do předmětu
Předmět je nabízen i studentům mimo mateřské obory.
Mateřské obory/plány
Cíle předmětu
The aim of the course is to acquiant the students with drugs from selected pharmacotherapeutic groups.
Výstupy z učení
At the end of the course student should be able choose and prescribe suitable drug for the patient with known indicication. The selection will be made with respect to all factors influencing drug safety and efficacy.
Osnova
  • aVLFA0822p - Pharmacology II lecture

    General medicine

    Spring semester 2022

  • (15.2. 2022)
  • 1. DRUGS USED IN DISEASES WITH CHRONIC PULMONARY OBSTRUCTION, H1-ANTIHISTAMINES
  • Lecture content: Effects of histamine and how to antagonize it. Classification of H1-antihistamines. Pharmacological review of drugs used in the therapy of diseases with chronic pulmonary obstruction.
  • (22.2. 2022)
  • 2. INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY, ANTIPSYCHOTICS, ANTIPARKINSONICS
  • Lecture content: History and classification of psychotropic substances. Pharmacological review of antipsychotics and antiparkinsonics.
  • (1.3. 2022)
  • 3. ANTIDEPRESSANTS
  • Lecture content: Pharmacological review of antidepressants and psychostimulants and their clinical use.
  • (8.3. 2022)
  • 4. ANXIOLYTICS, HYPNOSEDATIVES, ANTICONVULSANTS
  • Lecture content: Pharmacological review of anxiolytics, hypnosedatives, anticonvulsants. The possibilities of modulation of GABAergic neurotransmission and other central neurotransmitters. Self-study: drug dependence and its possible therapy.
  • (15.3. 2022)
  • 5. VASODILATORS AND DRUGS WITH EFFECT ON VESSELS
  • Lecture content: Risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, lipid-lowering drugs, nitrates, donors of NO groups, calcium channel blockers and other groups of direct vasodilators.
  • (22.3. 2022)
  • 6. DRUGS INFLUENCING RAAS, DIURETICS
  • Lecture content: Pharmacological profiles of drugs targeting RAAS and diuretics. Antagonists of mineralocorticoid receptors. Antihypertensives.
  • (29.3. 2022)
  • 7. DRUGS DIRECTLY INFLUENCING MYOCARDIUM
  • Lecture content: Beta-blockers and bradins, drugs with positive inotropic effects. Calcium channel blockers- non-DHP, antiarrhythmics.
  • (5.4. 2022)
  • 8. DRUGS INFLUENCING HAEMOSTASIS
  • Lecture content: Pharmacological profiles of anticoagulants, antiplatelet drugs, fibrinolytics, anti-fibrinolytics and haemostatics.
  • (12.4. 2022)
  • 9. ANTI-INFECTIVES I – ANTIBACTERIAL SUBSTANCES
  • Lecture content: Introduction and basic principles of antimicrobial therapy. Modes of resistance to antimicrobial drugs. Pharmacological review of antibiotics.
  • (19.4. 2022)
  • 10. ANTI-INFECTIVES II – ANTIFUNGAL AND ANTIVIRAL DRUGS
  • Lecture content: Systemic and local antimycotics; antiherpetics; pharmacotherapy of influenza; antiretrovirals; therapy of RSV and viral hepatitis.
  • (26.4. 2022)
  • 11. PHARMACOLOGY OF GIT – PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE, ANTIEMETICS, ANTIDIARRHEALS AND LAXATIVES
  • Lecture content: Pharmacological review of GIT drugs.
  • (3.5. 2022)
  • 12. CYTOSTATICS AND TARGETED THERAPY IN ONCOLOGY
  • Lecture content: Introduction. Classification of cytostatics according to their mechanisms of action. Mechanisms of resistance to anticancer drugs. Role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and TDM in oncology. Main classes of cytostatics. Principles of targeted therapy in oncology. Monoclonal antibodies. Protein kinase inhibitors. Targeted immunotherapy.
  • (10.5. 2022)
  • 13. THERAPY OF INTOXICATIONS
  • Lecture content: Review of most common intoxications and their symptomatology. General principles of poisoning management. Specific antidotes in poisoning therapy.
  • (17.5. 2022)
  • 14. DRUG INTERACTIONS
  • Lecture content: Classification of drug-drug interactions, evaluation of clinical relevance and seriousness of DDI. Monitoring of drug-drug interactions and their management.
  • (24.5. 2022)
  • 15. PHYTOPHARMACOLOGY AND PHARMACOGNOSY
  • Lecture content: Natural sources of medicines, selected groups of active constituents. Herbal preparations. Herbal poisons.
Literatura
    povinná literatura
  • RANG, H. P., James RITTER, R. J. FLOWER a Graeme HENDERSON. Rang & Dale's pharmacology. Eighth edition. [Edinburgh]: Churchill Livingstone, 2016. xv, 760. ISBN 9780702053627. info
    doporučená literatura
  • WHALEN, Karen. Pharmacology. Edited by Richard Finkel - Thomas A. Panavelil. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2015. xi, 664. ISBN 9781451191776. info
    neurčeno
  • Exam question outlines in the IS
  • Study materials in the IS, course aVLFA0822p and aVLFA0822c
Výukové metody
lectures
Metody hodnocení
The final evaluation of the course contains also results of the tests from practicals of both semesters and results of colloquium test.

The final mark is calculated by following method:

Relative weight of the mark from tests: 30 %
Relative weight of the mark from oral exam: 70 %

To calculate mark from the tests the following method will be used:
The summary score from all tests in courses VLFA07212c, VLFA07212p, VLFA08222c, and VLFA08222p is 230 pts. Minimum to pass through the course to the oral exam is 128 pts.
A = 210-230 pts
B = 190-209 pts
C = 160-189 pts
D = 140-159 pts
E = 128-139 pts
F = less than 128 pts

To calculate mark from the oral examthe following method will be used:
Three different questions are chosen by students from three different sets of questions at oral exam. Moreover the student answers additional questions of examinator. Drawn questions from General and Special pharmacology and the additional questions have relative weight of 30 %. The question on essential drugs has realtive weight 10 % in the final mark of the oral exam. When student is evaluated by F for any of these questions the overall rating of oral exam is also F.

In case of success with the ROPOT test, but classification F from the oral part, students enter the oral part next time and for the final mark the score from the last ROPOT attempt is used.
Vyučovací jazyk
Angličtina
Informace učitele

General pharmacology:

1. Pharmacology, sub-branches, origin of drugs, drug names
2. Types of pharmacotherapy, rules of rational and safe pharmacotherapy. The question of drug misuse.


3. Preclinical and clinical trials, stages.


4. Basic legislation related to drug use, Sources of information on drugs and medicinal products.


5. Solid and gaseous pharmaceutical drug dosage forms - overview and their influence on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.


6. Semi-solid and liquid pharmaceutical drug dosage forms - overview and their influence on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.


7. Routes of drug administration – overview, characteristics.


8. Drug absorption, presystemic elimination, drug bioavailability.


9. Drug distribution, volume of distribution, redistribution. General principles of drug movement through the body.


10. Drug elimination, processes of the first and zero order, drug accumulation.


11. Drug biotransformation – stages, examples.


12. Drug excretion (ways of excretion, possibilities of their influence).


13. Therapeutic monitoring of drugs (TDM).


14. Pharmacokinetics of single, repeated and continual drug administration.


15. Modes of drug action.


16. Inhibition and induction of enzymes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs – examples.


17. Synergism and antagonism in drug effect (pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics).


18. Dose – response curves, types of doses, drug anamnesis, patient‘s adherence.


19. Adverse drug reactions (types, categories, examples).


20. Pharmacovigilance, drug safety.


21. Influence of repeated administration on drug efficacy - examples of tolerance and tachyphylaxis. Primary resistance of the patient to the treatment.


22. Factors influencing the drug effect – examples.


23. Pharmacotherapy in elderly, the influence of co-morbidities on drug effect, polypharmacy.


24. Pharmacotherapy in paediatric population, in breastfeeding women. Drugs influencing breast feeding.


25. Pharmacotherapy in pregnancy, drug teratogenicity.


26. Pharmacogenetics, influence of genetic polymorphisms on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs.


27. Drug interactions - overview, examples.


28. Principles of biological treatment – classification, technology, examples of clinical use.




Special pharmacology:


1. Sympathomimetics - overview of single classes and their indications, examples of drugs


2. Sympatholytics - overview of single classes and their indications, examples of drugs


3. Cholinomimetics


4. Cholinolytics


5. Antispasmodics - GIT + UGT


6. Opioid analgesics


7. NSAIDs, non-opioid analgesics, antimigraine agents


8. Antiuratics, antirheumatics incl. DMARDs


9. General anesthetics


10. Local anesthetics


11. Muscle relaxants


12. Antidiabetics (except insulins)


13. Insulins


14. . Analogues and antagonists of oestrogenes, gestagenes and androgenes – their basic pharmacology; HRT, hormonal contraception


15. Analogues and antagonists of H-P axis hormones used in pharmacology; uterotonics and tocolytics


16. Glucocorticoids


17. Immunostimulants + immunosuppressants (except glucocorticoids)


18. Drugs used in osteoporosis, pharmacology of thyroid gland


19. Antiasthmatics, drugs used in COPD


20. Antitussives, mucoactive drugs


21. H1 antihistamines


22. Antipsychotics


23. Drugs of neurogenerative diseases (Parkinson’s disease; dementia)


24. Antidepressants - iMAO+SSRI+NDRI


25. Antidepressants - tricyclic, NASSA, MASSA, SARI, SNRI, NARI, SMS


26. Nootropics, cognitive enhancers


27. Psychostimulants. Drugs used in ADHD. Psychomimetics.


28. Anticonvulsants


29. Hypnosedatives, anxiolytics


30. Principles of antibacterial therapy – overview, modes of action, resistance, MIC, MBC


31. Penicillins, carbapenems


32. Cephalosporines, monobactams


33. Tetracyclines + related ATBs, amphenicoles


34. Macrolides and related ATBs, lincosamides


35. Aminoglycosides, glycopeptides, polymyxins


36. Sulphonamides, nitrofurans and nitroimidazoles


37. Quinolones, antituberculotics


38. Antimycotics


39. Dermatologics – overview of classes, drugs and effects


40. Antivirotics


41. Antiemetic drugs, prokinetics, antivertigo drugs


42. Laxatives, antidiarrhoics, drugs of infectious diarrhoeas


43. Antiulcer agents, hepatoprotectives and drugs influencing the production and excretion of bile


44. Drugs for inflammatory bowel disease


45. Alkylating cytostatics and other drugs aiming on DNA in oncology


46. Antimetabolites + hormonal therapy in oncology


47. Targeted treatment in oncology


48. Biological treatment of autoimmune diseases


49. Hypolipidemics, anti-obesity drugs


50. Nitrates and other vasodilators


51. Drugs targeting RAAS


52. Diuretics and aldosterone antagonists


53. Beta blockers + central antihypertensives


54. Calcium channel blockers, α1-lytics


55. Antiarrhythmics


56. Positive inotropic drugs


57. Antiplatelet agents, antianemics


58. Fibrinolytics, antifibrinolytics, hemostatics


59. Anticoagulants


60. Drugs causing addiction and substances used for treatment of addiction


61. General principles of drug poisoning, specific antidotes and their mechanisms of action


62. Drugs used in erectile dysfunction and BHP


63. Vitamins ADEK and hydrophilic vitamins


64. Antiglaucomatics and cycloplegics




„Essential drugs“

5-fluorouracil • acetylcysteine • acetalsalicylic acid • aciclovir • allopurinol • amiodarone • amlodipine • amphotericin B • aprepitant • atorvastatin • atropine • betahistine • buprenorphine • carbamazepine • caspofungin • cefuroxime • cetirizine • ciclosporine • ciprofloxacin • cisplatin • clarithromycin • clopidogrel • co-amoxicillin • codeine • cotrimoxazole • cyclophosphamide • cyproterone • dabigatran • desflurane • diazepam • digoxin • dobutamine • doxazosin • doxorubicin • doxycycline • empagliflozin • enoxaparin • escitalopram • ethinylestradiol • ezetimibe • famotidine • fenpiverine/pitofenone •fentanyl • finasteride • fluconazole • furosemide • gabapentin • gentamicin • haloperidol • hexoprenaline • ibuprofen • imatinib • indapamide • indometacin • interferons • insulin analogues • ipratropium-bromide • isosorbide dinitrate • ketamine • lactulose • levodopa/carbidopa • levonorgestrel • lidocaine • linagliptin • lithium • loperamide • meropenem • metamizole • metformin • methadone • methotrexate • methyldopa • methylphenidate • metoclopramide • metoprolol • mirtazapine • morphine • naloxone • nimesulide • nivolumab • noradrenaline • olanzapine • ondansetron • oxymetazoline • oxytocin • paclitaxel • pantoprazole • paracetamol • perindopril • phenoxymethylpenicillin • pilocarpine • piperacillin/tazobactam • prednisone • propofol • rivaroxaban • rivastigmine • salbutamol • sildenafil • solifenacin • spironolactone • sumatriptan • suxamethonium • tamoxifen • telmisartan • terbinafine • tramadol • trastuzumab • valproic acid • vancomycin • verapamil • warfarin • zidovudine • zolpidem •


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