aVLBC0321p Biochemie I - přednáška

Lékařská fakulta
podzim 2018
Rozsah
3/0/0. 45. 0 kr. Ukončení: z.
Vyučující
doc. RNDr. Jiří Dostál, CSc. (přednášející)
RNDr. Hana Paulová, CSc. (přednášející)
Mgr. Jiří Slanina, Ph.D. (přednášející)
prof. RNDr. Eva Táborská, CSc. (přednášející)
doc. RNDr. Josef Tomandl, Ph.D. (přednášející)
Ing. Martina Čarnecká, Ph.D. (pomocník)
Mgr. Jana Gregorová, Ph.D. (pomocník)
MUDr. Miroslava Hlaváčová, Ph.D. (pomocník)
PharmDr. Katarína Kostolanská (pomocník)
MUDr. Michaela Králíková, Ph.D. (pomocník)
Lenka Nerudová (pomocník)
Mgr. Lucie Novotná (pomocník)
Mgr. Ondřej Peš, Ph.D. (pomocník)
Mgr. Anna Pleskačová, Ph.D. (pomocník)
Mgr. Roman Sándor (pomocník)
Mgr. Marie Tomandlová, Ph.D. (pomocník)
Garance
prof. RNDr. Eva Táborská, CSc.
Biochemický ústav - Teoretická pracoviště - Lékařská fakulta
Dodavatelské pracoviště: Biochemický ústav - Teoretická pracoviště - Lékařská fakulta
Rozvrh
Út 14:00–15:50 A22/116 aula, St 10:00–10:50 A11/334
Předpoklady
aVLBF011c Biophysics - practice && aVLBI0222c Biologie II - cvičení
Omezení zápisu do předmětu
Předmět je určen pouze studentům mateřských oborů.
Mateřské obory
Cíle předmětu
The aim of the course is to obtain knowledge on essential metabolic processes on the cell level. Understanding of these proceses is a base for comprihension of metabolism on the tissue and organ level. In the introductory lessons are summarized basic terms from chemistry needed for understanding of body structure a physico-chemical processes occuring in it ((chemical composition of the body, survay of biologically important elements,water, elektrolytes, non-elektrolytes, osmotic pressure, acid-base, redox and precipitation reactions), the following lectures are focused on biochemical pathways in cells.
Výstupy z učení
At the end of the course students will:
- understand the meaning of basic chemical terms (pH, osmolality, electrolyte, buffer, etc.) and apply this knowledge when describing the properties of body fluids.
- describe the role of macro- and microbiogenic elements in the organism
- discusse the properties and function of enzymes
- describe basic catabolic and anabolic pathways of carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism, and their relationships.
- understand the principles of energy production, utilization and deposition at the cellular level.
- explain the function of cell membranes and the principle of compartmentalization at the cellular level and the transport processes on the membrane.
- describe protein synthesis, starting with the replication and transcription, translation and post-translational modifications. Understand the relationship between protein structure and function.
- explain the function of hemoglobin in oxygen transport and maintaining acid-base balance.
- discusse the principles of some diseases at the molecular level.
Osnova
  • Chemical composition of human body, survay of biochemically important elements, ROS. Water (properties, distribution), elektrolytes, nonelektrolytes, osmotic pressure, osmolality, osmolarity. Acid-base processes (pH, values of pH in organism). Buffers, Henderson-Hasselbalch eqution. Introduction to metabolism. Bases of bioenergetics (Gibbs energy, makroergnic compounds and their formation, chemical equilibrium and stady state). Redox equilibrium (elektrode potential, Nernst-Peters equation, biological redox systems). Membrane structure, the assembly and recycling of membranes. Specialized structures of plasma membrane – lipid rafts, caveols, tight junctions. membrane transport. Enzymes. Characteristic features of biocatalysis, enzyme structure and function, nomenclature and classification of enzymes. Enzyme cofactors, review of structures and functions. Mechanisms of enzyme action. Kinetics of enzyme catalyzed reactions. Assays of enzyme activity, the conditions used. Factors affecting catalytic activity of enzymes, types of enzyme inhibition. Metabolism: basic concepts and design. Biological oxidations, generation of high-energy compounds. Saccharide metabolism: the glycolytic pathway and aerobic decarboxylation of pyruvate. Gluconeogenesis. Glycogen biosynthesis and breakdown. The pentose phosphate pathway. The glucuronate pathway. Interconversions of monosaccharides and of their derivatives. Protein and amino acid metabolism. The common reactions in amino acid degradation. The ureosynthetic cycle. Metabolic breakdown of individual amino acids. Biosynthesis and breakdown of fatty acids, ketogenesis. Synthesis of triacylglycerols. Metabolism of phospholipids and glycolipids. Synthesis of eicosanoids. Biosynthesis and transformations of cholesterol, biosynthesis of bile acids. Interrelationships among the major pathways involved in energy metabolism. The citric acid cycle. Synthesis of haem. Mitochondria. Oxidative phosphorylation - mitochondrial electron transport chain, synthesis of ATP. Structure of haemoglobin, structure-function relationships (the oxygen saturation curve, inducement of haemoglobin saturation and oxygen transport. Bohr effect. Normal haemoglobin types in blood, haemoglobin concentration. Other forms (glycohaemoglobin, methaemoglobin, carboxyhaemoglobin) and abnormal haemoglobins. Biosynthesis and catabolism of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides. Chromatin, DNA replication. DNA transcription. Regulation of gene expression. Protein synthesis and post-translational processing.
Literatura
    povinná literatura
  • RODWELL, Victor W., David A. BENDER a Kathleen M. BOTHAM. Harper's illustrated biochemistry. 30th ed. New York: Mc Graw- Hill, 2015. xii, 817. ISBN 9781259252860. info
  • KOOLMAN, Jan a Klaus-Heinrich ROEHM. Color Atlas of Biochemistry. 3rd ed. : Georg Thieme Verlag, 2013. ISBN 978-3-13-100373-7. info
Výukové metody
Teaching form are lectures.
Metody hodnocení
Subject is a first part of two-semestral subject Biochemistry and is not terminated by exam nor course unit credit.
Vyučovací jazyk
Angličtina
Další komentáře
Předmět je vyučován každoročně.
Předmět je zařazen také v obdobích podzim 2016, podzim 2017, podzim 2019, podzim 2020.