aVLPF0521p Pathophysiology I - lecture

Lékařská fakulta
podzim 2021
2/0/0. 30. 0 kr. Ukončení: z.
Vyučováno prezenčně.
prof. MUDr. Kateřina Kaňková, Ph.D. (přednášející)
prof. MUDr. Anna Vašků, CSc. (přednášející)
prof. RNDr. Monika Pávková Goldbergová, Ph.D. (přednášející)
prof. MUDr. Julie Dobrovolná, Ph.D. (přednášející)
doc. RNDr. Sabina Ševčíková, Ph.D. (přednášející)
Věra Ježková (pomocník)
Mgr. Lukáš Pácal, Ph.D. (pomocník)
prof. MUDr. Kateřina Kaňková, Ph.D.
Ústav patologické fyziologie - Teoretická pracoviště - Lékařská fakulta
Kontaktní osoba: prof. MUDr. Kateřina Kaňková, Ph.D.
Dodavatelské pracoviště: Ústav patologické fyziologie - Teoretická pracoviště - Lékařská fakulta
Po 27. 9. až Út 14. 12. Út 15:40–17:20 B11/114; a Út 21. 9. 15:40–17:20 B11/334
aVLFY0422c Fyziologie II - cvičení && aVLFY0422s Fyziologie II - seminář && aVLBC0422c Biochemie II - cvičení && aVLBC0422s Biochemie II - sem. && ( VLLM0421c Lékařská mikrobiologie I-cvič. || aVLLM0421c Lékařská mikrobiologie I - cv. ) && ( aVLFY0422p Fyziologie II - přednáška || aVLBC0422p Biochemie II - předn. )&& aVLHE0322c Histologie a embryologie II -c && aVLAN0222c Anatomie II pitvy && aVLAN0222s Anatomie II - s
In order to comprehend the pathophysiology of the given disease student should have solid knowledge from theoretical disciplines preceding this course in the medical curriculum. In particular, anatomy (to imagine a site affected by disease and neighboring structures), biochemistry (mainly focusing on metabolism), physiology (functioning of the healthy body), immunology (since the immune system is involved to some degree in the majority of disease processes) and microbiology (pathogens representing an important biological external cause of disease).
Omezení zápisu do předmětu
Předmět je určen pouze studentům mateřských oborů.
Mateřské obory/plány
Cíle předmětu
Pathophysiology is a subject focusing on causes (aetiology) and mechanisms of disease development (pathogenesis) incl. changes inflicted by diseases on the level of the whole organism. Disease is usually (with exception of sudden events) a long terms process hidden (asymptomatic) for some time and only later and under certain circumstances might become clinically apparent illness. We aim to help the students to understand WHY and HOW are the changes unfolded. We also aspire to facilitate understanding the disease etiopathogenesis in its entire complexity, i.e. from initial molecular and/or genetic alterations, via cellular, tissue and organ adaptations towards an event. systemic process. Pathophysiology represents an integrating discipline in medical curriculum bridging the theoretical/preclinical and clinical phase. Inextricably, despite the predominantly theoretical nature of the subject, we want to contribute to the building of the „evidence based medicine“ paradigm accompanied by the appreciation of the „precision medicine“ concept.
Výstupy z učení
Student defines the states of health vs. disease
Student identifies main sources of interindividual variability
Student discusses factors determining population frequencies of alleles
Student distinguishes between mutation vs. polymorphisms and derives the possible biological consequences
Student describes basisc principles of lab methods characterising human genome and its variability
Student summarises major types of DNA repair and its significance for disease development
Student characterises major features of monogenic vs. complex diseases
Student discusses core principles of gene therapy
Student understands the term of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics
Student categories the types and effects of external factors on disease development
Student explains the importance of epigenetics and identifies major types of epigenetic mechanisms
Student describes the pathophysiology of stress reaction
Student defines the homeostasis and explains its regulation
Student is able to describe basis principles of multicellular organism functioning and regulation
Student discusses disorders of growth and development from ontogenetic point of view
Student describes the consequences of hypoxia including HIF-1 program
Student explains main differences between local and systemic inflammation
Student explains the pathogenesis of edema
Student discusses the etiopathogenesis of the most important electrolyte disturbances
Student discusses the etiopathogenesis of common base acid-base balance disturbances and their compensation
Student understands the principles of volume and tonicity regulation and provides examples of their disorders
Student discusses the role of platelets and physiological endothelium in maintaining an anti-aggregation state and understands basic principles of anti-aggregation therapy
Student understands the principles and performance of common coagulation tests
Student characterizes the process of the normal wound healing with examples of pathological healing
Student understands the principles of malignant transformation of the cell and of the cancer progression incl. local and systemic consequences
Student discusses the pathophysiology of urgent states in oncology
Student explains the pathophysiology of micronutrients incl. consequences of vitamin deficiencies
Student explains mechanisms of genomic and non- genomic effects of lipid soluble vitamins
Student discusses the pathophysiology of protein metabolism disorders
Student understands the basic principles of glucose metabolism regulation and the sources of its impairment
Student interprets the knowledge of principles of immune recognition of self- vs. foreign structures on examples of organ-specific and systemic autoimmune disorders
Student applies the knowledge of immune hypersensitive reaction in pathophysiology of atopic and allergic diseases
Student describes the process of heart and vessels remodelling and its consequences
Student applies the knowledge of chronobiology for an explanation of different pathophysiological changes
  • W1: Pathophysiology of circulatory system I – myocardial metabolism - atherosclerosis - coronary heart disease [Prof. MUDr. Kateřina Kaňková, PhD.]
  • W2: Pathophysiology of circulatory system II – ischemic heart disease – angina pectoris - acute coronary syndromes – complications of acute myocardial infarction [Prof. MUDr. Kateřina Kaňková, PhD.]
  • W3: Public holiday
  • W4: Pathophysiology of circulatory system III – pressure and volume overload (esp. systemic arterial hypertension, heart and valve defects, cardiomyopathies) - systolic and diastolic dysfunction – heart failure [Prof. MUDr. Anna Vašků, CSc.]
  • W5: Pathophysiology as a medical discipline – health vs. disease – definition of major concepts (aetiology, pathogenesis, syndrome/symptom etc.) with examples from a circulatory system [Prof. MUDr. Kateřina Kaňková, PhD.]
  • W6: Pathophysiology of respiratory system I – obstructive diseases (bronchial asthma and COPD) [Prof. MUDr. Anna Vašků, CSc.]
  • W7: Pathophysiology of respiratory system II – control of ventilation – respiratory insufficiency syndromes, pulmonary oedema, respiratory distress syndrome, selected restrictive lung diseases [Prof. MUDr. Kateřina Kaňková, PhD.]
  • W8: Pathophysiology of respiratory system IV – disorders of pulmonary circulation – pulmonary hypertension – classification of lung oedemas – pulmonary embolism – surfactant and respiratory distress syndromes – selected restrictive pulmonary diseases [Prof. MUDr. Kateřina Kaňková, PhD.]
  • W9: Cell / tissue / organ / multicellular organism – regulation of proliferation, differentiation and cell death (necrosis vs. apoptosis in the pathophysiological context), tissue injury – cytokines and chemokines, acute inflammation, acute phase reaction - regeneration  reparation – wound healing and its disorders [Prof. RNDr. Monika Pávková-Goldbergová, PhD.]
  • W10: Acute inflammation as a physiological response to injury vs. chronic inflammation as a pathologic process – etiopathogenesis, consequences (esp. fibrosis) examples, systemic inflammation (incl. sepsis), multi-organ dysfunction, SIRS, shock [Prof. MUDr. Julie Dobrovolná, PhD.]
  • W11: Cancer as a systemic disease - paraneoplastic syndromes – cancer cachexia – oncologic emergencies [Prof. MUDr. Anna Vašků, CSc.]
  • W12: Pathophysiology of kidneys I – glomerular haemodynamic – GFR and its quantification – pathology of glom. filtration membrane – proteinuria, glomerulopathies incl. glomerulonephritis) [Prof. MUDr. Kateřina Kaňková, PhD.]
  • W13: Pathophysiology of kidneys II – acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic renal failure [Prof. MUDr. Kateřina Kaňková, PhD.]
  • W14: Pathophysiology of endocrine system I – homeostasis, principles of its regulation and disorders, stress reaction and stress as a pathophysiological phenomenon [Prof. MUDr. Julie Dobrovolná, PhD.]
    povinná literatura
  • Pathophysiology of disease : an introduction to clinical medicine. Edited by Gary D. Hammer - Stephen J. McPhee. Eight edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2018. xiv, 814. ISBN 9781260288513. info
    doporučená literatura
  • KUMAR, Vinay, Abul K. ABBAS a Jon C. ASTER. Robbins & Cotran pathologic basis of disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2015. xvi, 1391. ISBN 9780323266161. info
  • HUETHER, Sue E. a Kathryn L. MCCANCE. Understanding pathophysiology. Edited by Valentina L. Brashers. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 2008. xxi, 1194. ISBN 9780323049900. info
  • PORTH, Carol. Essentials of pathophysiology : concepts of altered health states. Edited by Kathryn J. Gaspard - Kim A. Noble. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2010. xxiv, 1256. ISBN 9781451103182. info
  • MCCANCE, Kathryn L. a Sue E. HUETHER. Pathophysiology : the biologic basis for disease in adults and children. Edited by Valentina L. Brashers - Neal S. Rote. Seventh edition. St. Louis: Elsevier, 2014. xxvi, 1810. ISBN 9780323088541. info
  • DAMJANOV, Ivan. Pathophysiology. Illustrated by Matthew Chansky. 1st ed. Philadelphia: Saunders/Elsevier, 2009. vii, 464. ISBN 9781416002291. info
Výukové metody
Metody hodnocení
The attendance of lectures and only one absence on practicals per semester are necessary for succesfull accomplishment of the subject. Continous control of knowlledge in practicals is in full power of teachers (assays, tests...). Elaborated proceedings of practicals will be put to teachers for credit.
Vyučovací jazyk
Informace učitele
Due to the current situation regarding the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 epidemics a concomitant measures imposed by Czech government, South Moravia regional epidemiology office and university management we will combine contact teaching (practicals) with contact lectures accompanied by online lecture stream. Handouts for lectures will be provided via IS in pdf.
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Předmět je vyučován každoročně.
Předmět je zařazen také v obdobích podzim 2017, podzim 2018, podzim 2019, podzim 2020, podzim 2022, podzim 2023.