VLHE0322p Histology and Embryology II - lecture

Faculty of Medicine
autumn 2024
Extent and Intensity
2/0/0. 5 credit(s). Type of Completion: zk (examination).
doc. MVDr. Aleš Hampl, CSc. (lecturer)
Mgr. Hana Kotasová, Ph.D. (lecturer)
MVDr. Anna Mac Gillavry Danylevska, Ph.D. (lecturer)
doc. MUDr. Miroslava Sedláčková, CSc. (lecturer)
doc. RNDr. Petr Vaňhara, Ph.D. (lecturer)
MUDr. Ivana Baltasová (assistant)
MVDr. Lenka Lišková (assistant)
MUDr. Eva Mecová (assistant)
MUDr. Volodymyr Porokh (assistant)
Mgr. Eva Švandová, Ph.D. (assistant)
doc. MVDr. Martin Anger, CSc. (alternate examiner)
doc. RNDr. Irena Koutná, Ph.D. (alternate examiner)
Guaranteed by
doc. MVDr. Aleš Hampl, CSc.
Department of Histology and Embryology – Theoretical Departments – Faculty of Medicine
Contact Person: doc. MUDr. Miroslava Sedláčková, CSc.
Supplier department: Department of Histology and Embryology – Theoretical Departments – Faculty of Medicine
Prerequisites (in Czech)
( VLHE0221c Histology and Embryology I -p || VSHE0221c Histology and Embryology I -p ) && ( VLBI0222c Biology II-pract. || VSBI0222c Biology II-pract. )
Course Enrolment Limitations
The course is also offered to the students of the fields other than those the course is directly associated with.
fields of study / plans the course is directly associated with
Course objectives
The aim of the course is to understand the structure of cells and tissues, interactions of cells and extracellular matrix, the morphology and functional relationships of the tissues in the organs and organ systems of the human body. The aim of the embryology is understanding basic developmental principles from fertilization to birth, development of individual body systems and some of the mechanisms leading to the origin of congenital defects.
Learning outcomes
At the end of the course students should be able to:
1. Understand and explain the structure of a cell, basic structural principles and function of connective tissues, features of epithelial tissue, structure of different types of muscle tissue, structure and function of nervous tissue.
2. Identify tissue types in histologic slides.
3. Characterize microscopic structure of individual organs of human body and explain correlations of tissues within organs.
4. Describe gamete development, explain principle of meiosis and regulation of gametogenesis.
5. Define the early embryonic development as well as development of fetal membranes, placenta and umbilical cord.
6. Characterize stages of embryonic development, describe the development of individual organ systems of human body.
7. Explain the mechanism of the origin of some developmental anomalies.
  • 1. Microscopic structure of the lymphatic system. Mononuclear phagocyte system.
  • 2. Microscopic structure and development of respiratory system. Respiratory passages and lungs. Blood - air barrier.
  • 3. Digestive tract (gastro-intestinal tract - GIT) I. Microscopic structure of the oral cavity - lips, cheeks, salivary glands, tongue, tooth.
  • 4. GIT II. General structure of the wall of digestive tube. Microscopic structure of the oesophagus, stomach, and intestines. Histophysiology of the intestine and blood circulation.
  • 5. GIT III. Microscopic structure of the liver, gallbladder, gall ducts, and pancreas. Overview of development of the gut.
  • 6. Microscopic structure and development of the urinary system: Nephron - its structure, histotopography, and function. Blood circulation of kidneys. Urinary passages. Stages in development of kidneys (pro-, meso-, and metanephros).
  • 7. Microscopic structure of the male reproductive system: Testis, excretory genital ducts, accessory genital glands, penis. Spermato- and spermiogenesis. Composition of the sperm (ejaculate).
  • 8. Microscopic structure of the female reproductive system: Ovary, oviduct, uterus, vagina, external genitalia. Ovarian cycle, ovulation, atresia. Oogenesis. Menstrual cycle. Relations between the menstrual and ovarian cycle.
  • 9. Development of internal and external sexual organs. General characteristics of the indifferent stage.
  • 10. Microscopic structure, histophysiology and development of endocrine glands: Hypophysis, epiphysis, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal gland, islets of Langerhans. Principles of humoral regulation.
  • 11. Microscopic structure and development of the central and peripheral nervous system. Structure of gray matter in the CNS: Iso- and allocortex, cerebellar cortex, spinal cord. Meninges. Ganglia and peripheral nerves. Overview of development of the brain and spinal cord including histogenesis of the neural tube.
  • 12. Microscopic structure of the organ of vision: The eye and its refractive (dioptric) media. Accessory structures of the eye. Microscopic structure of the ear (vestibulocochlear organ). Major structural differences between the statokinetic and acoustic compartments. Overview of development of the eye and vestibulocochlear organ.
  • 13. Microscopic structure and development of the skin and skin derivatives. Mammary gland.
  • 14. Development of body cavities and mesenteries. Development of the diaphragm. Development of the spleen.
    recommended literature
  • ČECH, Svatopluk and Drahomír HORKÝ. Přehled obecné histologie. 1. vyd. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 2005, 140 s. ISBN 8021038543. info
  • HORKÝ, Drahomír and Svatopluk ČECH. Mikroskopická anatomie. 2. nezm. vyd. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 2005, 353 s. ISBN 802103775X. info
  • ČECH, Svatopluk, Drahomír HORKÝ and Miroslava SEDLÁČKOVÁ. Přehled embryologie člověka. 1. vyd. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 2011, 187 pp. ISBN 978-80-210-5414-1. info
  • MOORE, Keith L., T. V. N. PERSAUD and Mark G. TORCHIA. The developing human : clinically oriented embryology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders/Elsevier, 2013, xix, 540. ISBN 9781437720020. info
  • MESCHER, Anthony L. Junqueirovy základy histologie. První české vydání. Praha: Galén, 2018, xiii, 558. ISBN 9788074923241. info
    not specified
  • VACEK, Zdeněk. Embryologie : učebnice pro studenty lékařství a oborů všeobecná sestra a porodní asistentka. 1. vyd. Praha: Grada, 2006, 255 s. ISBN 9788024712673. info
  • SADLER, T. W. Langmanova lékařská embryologie. 1. české vyd. Praha: Grada, 2011, xviii, 414. ISBN 9788024726403. info
  • KAPELLER, Karol and Viera POSPÍŠILOVÁ. Embryológia človeka: učebnica pre lekárske fakulty. Martin: Osveta, 2001, 370 pp. ISBN 80-8063-072-0. info
  • LÜLLMANN-RAUCH, Renate. Histologie. Translated by Radomír Čihák. 1. české vyd. Praha: Grada, 2012, xx, 556. ISBN 9788024737294. info
  • OVALLE, William K., Patrick C. NAHIRNEY and Frank H. NETTER. Netter's essential histology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier/Saunders, 2013, xv, 517. ISBN 9781455706310. info
  • YOUNG, Barbara. Wheater's functional histology : a text and colour atlas. 5th ed. [Oxford]: Churchill Livingstone, 2006, x, 437. ISBN 044306850X. info
  • SADLER, T. W. and Jan LANGMAN. Langman's medical embryology. Illustrated by Jill Leland. 11th ed. Baltimore, Md.: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2010, ix, 385. ISBN 9781605476568. info
  • LOWE, James S. and Peter G. ANDERSON. Stevens and Lowe´s Human Histology. 4th. Elsevier, 2015. ISBN 978-0-7234-3502-0. info
Teaching methods
Assessment methods
Combined form (written test, practical exam, final oral exam).
Language of instruction
Further comments (probably available only in Czech)
The course is taught annually.
The course is taught: every week.
Information on the extent and intensity of the course: 30.
Listed among pre-requisites of other courses
Teacher's information
The course is also listed under the following terms Autumn 2016, Autumn 2017, autumn 2018, autumn 2019, autumn 2020, autumn 2021, autumn 2022, autumn 2023.
  • Enrolment Statistics (recent)
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