VLPF0521p Patholphysiology I - lecture

Faculty of Medicine
autumn 2020
Extent and Intensity
2/0/0. 0 credit(s). Type of Completion: z (credit).
Taught online.
Teacher(s)
prof. MUDr. Kateřina Kaňková, Ph.D. (lecturer)
prof. MUDr. Anna Vašků, CSc. (lecturer)
doc. RNDr. Monika Pávková Goldbergová, Ph.D. (lecturer)
prof. MUDr. Julie Dobrovolná, Ph.D. (lecturer)
doc. RNDr. Sabina Ševčíková, Ph.D. (lecturer)
Věra Ježková (assistant)
Mgr. Lukáš Pácal, Ph.D. (assistant)
Guaranteed by
prof. MUDr. Kateřina Kaňková, Ph.D.
Department of Pathophysiology - Theoretical Departments - Faculty of Medicine
Contact Person: prof. MUDr. Kateřina Kaňková, Ph.D.
Supplier department: Department of Pathophysiology - Theoretical Departments - Faculty of Medicine
Timetable
Mon 5. 10. to Fri 15. 1. Wed 15:00–16:40 B22/116 aula; and Wed 20. 1. 15:00–16:40 N02901
Prerequisites (in Czech)
( VLFY0422p Physiology II - lecture || VSFY0422p Physiology II - lecture ) && ( VSBC041p Biochemistry II -l || VLBC0422p Biochemistry I -lect. ) && ( VLAN0222p Anatomy II l || VSAN0333p Anatomy III - lec. ) && ( VLHE0322p Histology and embryology II -l || VSHE0322p Histology and embryology II -l ) && VLLM0421c Med.Microbiol.
Course Enrolment Limitations
The course is only offered to the students of the study fields the course is directly associated with.
fields of study / plans the course is directly associated with
Course objectives
Pathophysiology is a subject focusing on causes (aetiology) and mechanisms of disease development (pathogenesis) incl. changes inflicted by diseases on the level of the whole organism. Disease is usually (with exception of sudden events) a long terms process hidden (asymptomatic) for some time and only later and under certain circumstances might become clinically apparent illness. We aim to help the students to understand WHY and HOW are the changes unfolded. We also aspire to facilitate understanding disease etiopathogenesis complexly, i.e. from initial molecular and/or genetic alterations, via cellular, tissue and organ or event. systemic process. Pathophysiology represents an integrating discipline in medical curriculum bridging the theoretical/preclinical and clinical phase. Inextricably, despite the predominantly theoretical nature of the subject, we want to contribute to the building of the „evidence based medicine“ paradigm accompanied by the appreciation of the „precision medicine“ concept.
Learning outcomes
Student characterizes state of healthy and disease
Student calls main sources of interindividual variability
Student discusses influences which determined population frequencies of alleles
Student distinguishes mutation types according to the mechanism
Student describes base principles of methods detecting human genome and its variability
Student summarises base types of DNA reparation
Student describes base characteristics of monogenic diseases
Student discusses base principles and indications of gene therapy
Student knows an importance of the term of pharmacogenetics
Student demonstrates understanding of an influence of external factors on disease development
Student characterizes base features of complex diseases
Student summarises importance of epigenetics
Student describes pathophysiology of stress reaction
Student defines homeostasis term
Student is able to describe base principles of multicellular organism functioning
Student identifies disorder of growth and development from ontogenetic point of view
Student describes results of hypoxia including HIF 1 program
Student explains a difference between local and systemic inflammation
Student explains pathogenesis of oedema
Student discusses etiopathogenesis of the most important ion homeostasis disturbances
Student distinguishes base acid base balance disturbances and possibilities of their compensation
Student applies knowledge of volume and tonicity regulation
Student discusses a role of platelets and physiological endothelium during antiaggregation state and understands base principles of antiaggregation therapy
Student knows principles and performance of base coagulation tests
Student explains wound healing process with examples of pathological healing
Student knows pathophysiology of urgent states in oncology diseases
Student explains an importance of micronutrients abnormalities
Student knows results of abnormal vitamin levels
Student explains mechanism of genomic and non- genomic effects of soluble in lipids vitamins
Student discusses pathophysiology of protein metabolism
Student understands the base principles of regulation of glucose
Student interprets knowledge of immune recognition of own and foreign structure on examples of specifically organ and systemic disorders
Student interprets immunological knowledge of hypersensitive mechanisms in pathophysiology of atopic and allergic changes
Student describes onset, signs and results of heart and vessels remodelling
Student applies chronobiology knowledge for explication of different pathophysiological changes
Syllabus
  • W1: Pathophysiology of circulatory system I – myocardial metabolism - atherosclerosis – coronary heart disease [Prof. MUDr. Kateřina Kaňková, PhD.]
  • W2: Pathophysiology of circulatory system II – angina pectoris - acute coronarz szndromes - MI complications [Prof. MUDr. Kateřina Kaňková, PhD.]
  • W3: Pathophysiology as a medical discipline – health vs. disease – definition of major concepts (aetiology, pathogenesis, syndrome/symptom etc.) [Prof. MUDr. Kateřina Kaňková, PhD.]
  • W4: public holiday
  • W5: Pathophysiology of circulatory system III – pressure and volume overload (esp. SAH, heart and valve defects, cardiomyopathies) - systolic and diastolic dysfunction – heart failure [Prof. MUDr. Anna Vašků, CSc.]
  • W6: Pathophysiology of respiratory system I – blood gases exchange – ventilation / diffusion / perfusion) disorders – ventilation-perfusion mismatch [Prof. MUDr. Kateřina Kaňková, PhD.]
  • W7: Pathophysiology of respiratory system II – control of ventilation – respiratory insufficiency syndromes, pulmonary oedema, respiratory distress syndrome, selected restrictive lung diseases [Prof. MUDr. Kateřina Kaňková, PhD.]
  • W8: Pathophysiology of respiratory system III – obstructive diseases (bronchial asthma and COPD), pulmonary hypertension [Prof. MUDr. Anna Vašků, CSc.]
  • W9: Pathophysiology of respiratory system IV – disorders of pulmonary circulation – pulmonary hypertension – classification of lung oedemas – pulmonary embolism – surfactant and respiratory distress syndromes – selected restrictive pulmonary diseases [Prof. MUDr. Julie Dobrovolná, PhD.] W10: Cell/tissue/organ/multicellular organism – regulation of proliferation, differentiation and cell death (necrosis vs. apoptosis in the pathophysiological context), tissue injury – cytokines and chemokines, acute inflammation, acute phase reaction - regeneration/reparation – wound healing and its disorders [Doc. RNDr. Monika Pávková-Goldbergová, PhD.]
  • W11: Chronic inflammation as a pathologic process – etiopathogenesis, consequences (esp. fibrosis) examples, systemic inflammation (incl. sepsis), multi-organ dysfunction, SIRS, shock [Prof. MUDr. Julie Dobrovolná, PhD.]
  • W12: Cancer as a systemic disease - paraneoplastic syndromes – cancer cachexia – oncologic emergencies [Prof. MUDr. Anna Vašků, CSc.]
  • W13: Pathophysiology of kidneys I – glomerular haemodynamic – GFR and its quantification – pathology of glom. filtration membrane – proteinuria, glomerulopathies incl. glomerulonephritis) [Prof. MUDr. Kateřina Kaňková, PhD.]
  • W14: Pathophysiology of kidneys II – acute (AKI) and chronic renal failure [Prof. MUDr. Kateřina Kaňková, PhD.]
Literature
    required literature
  • NEČAS, Emanuel a spol. Obecná patologická fyziologie. 1. vyd. Praha: Karolinum, 2000. 377 pp. ISBN 80-246-0051-X. info
  • NEČAS, Emanuel. Patologická fyziologie orgánových systémů. 1. vyd. Praha: Karolinum, 2003. 379 s. ISBN 9788024606750. info
  • NEČAS, Emanuel. Patologická fyziologie orgánových systémů. 1. vyd. Praha: Karolinum, 2003. s. 381-760. ISBN 9788024606743. info
    recommended literature
  • PÁVKOVÁ GOLDBERGOVÁ, Monika. Patofyziologie v obrazech. Vydání první. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 2016. 186 stran. ISBN 9788021083233. info
    not specified
  • KUMAR, Vinay, Abul K. ABBAS and Jon C. ASTER. Robbins & Cotran pathologic basis of disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2015. xvi, 1391. ISBN 9780323266161. info
Teaching methods
lecture
Assessment methods
The attendance of lectures and only one absence on practicals per semester are necessary for succesfull accomplishment of the subject. Continous control of knowlledge in practicals is fully in powers of teachers (assays, tests...). Elaborated proceedings of practicals will be put to teachers for credit.
Language of instruction
Czech
Further comments (probably available only in Czech)
Study Materials
The course is taught annually.
Information on the extent and intensity of the course: 30.
Teacher's information
https://patfyz.med.muni.cz/
Due to the current situation regarding the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 epidemics a concomitant measures imposed by Czech government, South Moravia regional epidemiology office and university management we will combine contact teaching (practicals) together with online lectures according to official schedule. The lectures will take place in MS Teams (access code 9p4cksx). Handouts for lectures will be provided via IS in pdf.
The course is also listed under the following terms Autumn 2017, autumn 2018, autumn 2019.
  • Enrolment Statistics (recent)
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