VLPA0521p Pathology I - lecture

Faculty of Medicine
autumn 2020
Extent and Intensity
3/0/0. 0 credit(s). Type of Completion: z (credit).
prof. MUDr. Markéta Hermanová, Ph.D. (lecturer)
doc. MUDr. Leoš Křen, Ph.D. (lecturer)
prof. RNDr. Jana Šmardová, CSc. (lecturer)
MUDr. Víta Žampachová (lecturer)
MUDr. Iva Svobodová (lecturer)
Mgr. Iva Holušová (assistant)
Jarmila Jelínková (assistant)
MUDr. Pavel Fabian, Ph.D. (lecturer)
MUDr. Sylva Hotárková (lecturer)
MUDr. Marta Ježová, Ph.D. (lecturer)
MUDr. Irena Kubelková (lecturer)
MUDr. Andrea Nazarčuková (lecturer)
MUDr. Zdeněk Pavlovský (lecturer)
MUDr. Dávid Said (lecturer)
MUDr. Filip Sokol (lecturer)
MUDr. Iva Staniczková Zambo, Ph.D. (lecturer)
MUDr. Lukáš Velecký (lecturer)
Markéta Grozertová (assistant)
Guaranteed by
doc. MUDr. Leoš Křen, Ph.D.
Department of Pathology - Institutions shared with the Faculty Hospital Brno - Adult Age Medicine - Faculty of Medicine
Contact Person: prof. MUDr. Markéta Hermanová, Ph.D.
Supplier department: First Department of Pathology - Institutions shared with St. Anne's Faculty Hospital - Faculty of Medicine (50,00 %), Department of Pathology - Institutions shared with the Faculty Hospital Brno - Adult Age Medicine - Faculty of Medicine (50,00 %)
Thu 14:00–16:30 B22/116 aula
Prerequisites (in Czech)
( VLFY0422p Physiology II - lecture || VSFY0422p Physiology II - lecture ) && ( VSBC041p Biochemistry II -l || VLBC0422p Biochemistry I -lect. ) && ( VLAN0222p Anatomy II l || VSAN0333p Anatomy III - lec. ) && ( VLHE0322p Histology and embryology II -l || VSHE0322p Histology and embryology II -l ) && VLLM0421c Med.Microbiol.
Course Enrolment Limitations
The course is only offered to the students of the study fields the course is directly associated with.
fields of study / plans the course is directly associated with
Course objectives
The main stress in the pathology course is given on macroscopic and microscopic correlation of diseases. After finishing the course the student should be able to: understand the basic pathologic processes (regressive changes, inflammaton, oncology, immune disorders); understand and be able to apply the basic classification of oncologic processes; understand the basic classification of etiologically defined processes (esp. infectious diseases); learn the most important methods used in diagnostic process and research (tissue processing, special stainings, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, molecular pathology); understand various disorders with respect to individual organs and organ systems; get familiar with the process of autopsy (the process of the autopsy and its evaluation); get familiar with laboratory processing of the tissue samples (description, tissue sampling);
Learning outcomes
Student is able to explain the discussed terms and concepts. Student is able to recognize and describe the macroscopic morphology of the basic diseases. Student is able to recognize and describe the microscopic morphology of the basic diseases. Student knows the etiology of the basic diseases. Student describes the pathophysiology of the basic diseases. Student describes the main symptoms of the basic diseases.
  • General Pathology
  • Pathology and its role in medicine.
  • Methodology: autopsy, clinico-pathological correlation, surgical pathology (biopsy), ways of tissue examination and fixation
  • Cytology.
  • The disease, its definition and course. External and internal causes of a disease. Prevention.
  • Death (clinical and biological). Signs of death.
  • Regressive changes, necrosis (classification, causes). Atrophy: numeric and simple. Dystrophy: metabolic disorders of proteins, glycids, fat, water, minerals and pigments.
  • Inflammation: definition, local and general sings, microscopic and macroscopic. Inflammation: classification, nomenclature. Immunity disorders, transplantation pathology.
  • Progressive changes. Regeneration, reparation, wound healing. Hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia. Pseudotumors: cysts, pseudocysts, inflammatory pseudotumor. Disorders of embryonal development.
  • Tumors: definition, general properties, etiology, precanceroses. Biology of tumors: benign, malignant and uncertain tumors. Systematic classification of tumors: epithelial, mesenchymal, neuroectodermal and germinal tumors, choriocarcinoma, mesothelioma.
  • Organ pathology
  • Disorders of the heart, circulation of the blood and lymph: Congenital and acquired heart diseases, changes in size and shape of the heart. Pathological contents of the pericardium. Inflammation, ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction. Circulatory failure. Hypertension. Disorders of arteries and veins: atherosclerosis, aneurysm, inflammation, anemia, polycytemia. Local circulatory disorders: thrombosis, embolism. Bleeding. Lymfadenitis. Tumors.
  • Respiratory disorders: Pathology of upper respiratory pathways: rhinitis, laryngitis, bronchitis. Tumors and pseudotumors. Changes in pulmonary ventilation and circulation (venostasis, edema, induration, infarction, embolism). Silicosis and other external pigmentations. Superficial, interstitial and chronic inflammations of the lung. Pulmonary tumors. Pathology of the pleura.
  • Disorders of the gastrointestinal tract: Pathology of the oral cavity, pharynx, tonsillae and esophagus. Gastiris, peptic ulcers, gastric tumors. Pathology of the gut: disorders of circulation, inflammation. Appendicitis, malabsorption syndrome. Ileus, herniation. Intestinal tumors. Inflammation of the peritoneum, pathological contents of peritoneal cavity.
    required literature
  • Patologie. Edited by Josef Zámečník. První vydání. Praha: LD Prager Publishing, 2019. xxvii, 282. ISBN 9788027064571. info
    not specified
  • POVÝŠIL, Ctibor and Ivo ŠTEINER. Obecná patologie. 1. vyd. Praha: Galén, 2011. xiii, 290. ISBN 9788072627738. info
  • POVÝŠIL, Ctibor and Ivo ŠTEINER. Speciální patologie. 2nd ed. Praha: Galén, 2007. ISBN 978-80-7262-494-2. info
  • BUČEK, Jan. Praktikum z patologie :pitevní cvičení. 4. přepr. vyd. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 1993. 88 s. ISBN 80-210-0721-4. info
  • FEIT, Josef, P. MIŘEJOVSKÝ and I. STEINER. Kontrolní otázky z patologie (Test question in pathology). 1st ed. Praha: Triton, 1998. ISBN 80-85875-89-6. info
  • MAČÁK, Jiří, Jana MAČÁKOVÁ and Jana DVOŘÁČKOVÁ. Patologie. 2., doplněné vydání. Praha: Grada, 2012. 347 stran. ISBN 9788024735306. info
Teaching methods
The course of pathology combines lectures (3 hours/week) and practical classes (4 hours/week, consisting of histological and autoptic lessons). Lectures are common for students of both pathology departments of Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, and are proportionally performed by lecturers of these institutions. Topics of the lectures correspond with the recommended literature and the information obtained during the lectures represents an integral part of the recommended study materials/literature and is required at the exam. The schedule of the lectures (including lecturers) is released by each pathology department before the beginning of each semester and students will be informed during the practical classes at the beginning of each term as well. Theoretical basis of each learning unit is presented during the practical classes (in a continuity with lectures) using an audio-visual technique. Histopathological findings of autoptical and bioptical samples are presented using the slides (including virtual/digitized ones). Students are expected to describe histopathological findings in a set of selected lesions. The list of required slides will be published before the beginning of a summer semester. Hypertext teaching materials are also used and are available in lecture rooms of the Department of Pathology (University Hospital Brno) and for all students for the individual work on website (www.muni.cz/atlases). During the winter semester, students will take part in at least 2 commented demonstration autopsies performed by a teacher in a demonstration autopsy room. The student will learn the basis of the autopsy technique and later during the semester actively participate in an autopsy of all organ systems. The autopsy classes are finished by macroscopic description of all organ systems and summary of autopsy findings. These classes can be replaced by a demonstration of autopsy findings from the database of the particular pathology department and by the excursion to the bioptical laboratories to obtain the information about basic principles of the laboratory work in pathology departments including the techniques of gross sampling.
Assessment methods
The subject is closed by the oral exam. 3 questions from the topics of general pathology, systemic pathology, and oncology are examined. The list of questions will be available on the information system of the university no later than at the beginning of the summer semester and is obligatory for both departments of pathology. The exam is classified in agreement with study and examinations regulations of Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University. The credit and successfull passing through practical exam represent the prerequisitions for an oral theoretical exam. The credits are based on the regular participation at practical classes (2 excused absences are accepted), knowledge of autopsy technique and macroscopic description of pathological findings of organs or organ systems during the autopsy. The practical exam includes descriptive evaluation of 2 histopathological slides (real or digitized), basic differential diagnosis of the studied lesion and a theoretical minimum for the topic. Exact histopathological diagnosis is not requested for successfull passing through the practical exam. In case of a failure at practical exam, the student is not allowed to take the oral exam and is classified F. Successfully passed practical exam is not repeated in case of a failure at subsequent oral exam.
Language of instruction
Further comments (probably available only in Czech)
Study Materials
The course is taught annually.
Information on the extent and intensity of the course: 45.
Teacher's information
The course is also listed under the following terms Autumn 2017, autumn 2018, autumn 2019.
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