Bi2030 Higher plant phylogeny and diversity

Faculty of Science
Spring 2019
Extent and Intensity
3/0/0. 3 credit(s) (plus 2 credits for an exam). Type of Completion: zk (examination).
Teacher(s)
doc. RNDr. Petr Bureš, Ph.D. (lecturer)
Supervisor
doc. RNDr. Petr Bureš, Ph.D.
Department of Botany and Zoology - Biology Section - Faculty of Science
Contact Person: doc. RNDr. Petr Bureš, Ph.D.
Supplier department: Department of Botany and Zoology - Biology Section - Faculty of Science
Timetable
Mon 18. 2. to Fri 17. 5. Mon 14:00–16:50 A11/114, Mon 14:00–16:50 A11/306
Prerequisites (in Czech)
( Bi2030c High. plant phyl. & div. - pr. || NOW ( Bi2030c High. plant phyl. & div. - pr. ))&&( Bi1090 Phylog. & diver. algae & fungi && Bi1090c Phyl. & div. algae & fungi -pr )
Course Enrolment Limitations
The course is also offered to the students of the fields other than those the course is directly associated with.
Fields of study the course is directly associated with
Course objectives
System and evolution of plants is one of the introductory disciplines of biological study. The subject is intended for students of systematic biology and education. Its main aims are: foundations of higher plant morphology, survey of classification methods of the higher plants, basic principles of botanical nomenclature, and mechanisms of plant evolution. A survey of higher plant divisions is presented according to the main morphological features. Detailed attention is focused on the APG classification of the higher plants. Practical plant use is also mentioned. The historical development of systematic botany is included in the introductory lectures. A geohistorical survey of plant evolution at the Czech, European, and world scales is presented in the final lectures.
Syllabus
  • 1a. Introductory lecture : Objectives and main aspects of systematic botany, principles of classification, species definition, differences in reproduction and biology of plants and animals and implications of these differences for the evolution of these organisms. 1b. Brief historical survey of plant systematics: Theophrast habitual classification; Dioscorides encyclopedy of medicinal plants, German Renaissance "Father of Botany"; preparation plants for herbals and emergence of plant morphology, artificial systems from Cesalpino to the Linnaean synthesis, the first natural systems - Jussieu and Adanson; discoveries of plant reproduction and alternation of generatins in 19th century, Darwin evolutionary theory and its implications for systematic biology, the development of genetics, cytogenetics, phytopaleontology biometrics, cladistics and molecular biology in the 20th century and their implications for plant classification, APG classification, molecular bar -coding and phylocode. 2a. Basic principles of botanical nomenclature: names of suprageneric taxa; names of genera and infrageric taxa; names of species and intraspecific taxa, the principle of priority, name changes and the reasons for them; principle of typization; the authors names and their abbreviations; differences between botanical and zoological nomenclature. 2b. Evolutionary origin and synapomorphies of higher plants, their position in the tree of life, their relationships to the closest phylogenetic lineages; pre-conditions of plant terrestrialization; adaptative consequences of plant terrestrialization. 3. Mosses - non-vascular higher plants; common anatomical and morphological features characterizing the three lines of mosses, liverworts and hornworts, their geographical and ecological preferences, reproduction and life cycle. Division Marchantiophyta - their specific anatomical and morphological characters, reproduction and main representatives. Division Bryophyta - their specific anatomical and morphological characters, reproduction and main representatives. Division Anthocerophyta - their specific anatomical and morphological characters, reproduction and main representatives. 4a. Ryniophytes - primitive fossil vascular higher plants, their ecology, morphology and life cycle; megaphyllous and mikrophyllous lineages of rhyniophytes; specific vascular elements of rhyniophytes; telome and stellar theory, the main characters and representatives of the divisions of Protracheophyta, Zosterophyllophyta and Trimerophyta. 4b. Clubmoses (Department Lycopodiophyta) - Recent microphyllous sporic vascular plants, their ecology, morphology and life cycles, classification, morphology, distribution, reproduction and representatives of the classes of Lycopodiopsida, Selaginellopsida and Isoëtopsida; from heterospory to the independent evolution of seeds. 5. Monilophytes (division Monilophyta) - recent megaphyllous sporic vascular plants, their ecology, morphology and life cycles, classification, anatomy, morphology, distribution and principal representatives of the classes of Psilotopsida, Equisetopsida, Marattiiopsida and Polypodiopsida; evolution of seed lineages among fossil monilophytes - class Pteridospermopsida. 6. Gymnosperms (division Gymnospermae), their ecology, anatomy, morphology and life cycles, classification and principal representatives of the classes Progymnospermopsida, Cordaitopsida, Cycadopsida, Cycadeoideopsida, Ginkgoopsida, Pinopsida, Gnetopsida. The main innovation development in relation to the formation semennosti. 7. Angiosperms (flowering plants, division Angiospermae); basic synapomorphies, morphology of roots, leaves, inflorescences, flowers and fruits, and seeds; dispersal morphology and their reproductive strategies and life cycle. Fossil records and evolutionary trends angiosperms, coevolution with pollinators, their diversity and ecology. 8a. Basal angiosperms, evolutionary trends, anatomy, morphology and ecology of representatives of selected orders and selected families : Amborellales (Amborellaceae) Nymphaeales (Nymphaeaceae), Magnoliales (Magnoliaceae), Piperales (Piperaceae, Aristolochiaceae). 8b. Basal monocots + liliid monocots, evolutionary trends, anatomy, morphology and ecology of representatives of selected orders and selected families : Acorales (Acoraceae) Alismatales (Araceae, Alismataceae) Liliales (Liliaceae), Asparagales (Orchidaceae, Iridaceae, + Alliaceae Amaryllidaceae, Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae). 9. Commelinid lineage of monocots, evolutionary trends, anatomy, morphology and ecology of representatives of selected orders and selected families : Arecales (Arecaceae), Poales (Juncaceae, Cyperaceae, Poaceae, Typhaceae). 10. Basal and core eudicots, evolutionary trends, anatomy, morphology and ecology of representatives of selected orders and selected families : Ranunculales (Ranunculaceae, Papaveraceae + Fumariaceae) Caryophyllales (Amaranthaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Polygonaceae) Saxifragales (Saxifragaceae) 11. Rosid, fabid and malvid lineages of core eudicots; evolutionary trends, anatomy, morphology and ecology of representatives of selected orders and selected families : Geraniales (Geraniaceae) Violales (Euphorbiaceae, Violaceae, Salicaceae) Fabales (Fabaceae), Rosales (Rosaceae, Cannabaceae, Urticaceae, Ulmaceae) Cucurbitales (Cucurbitaceae), Fagales (Fagaceae, Betulaceae), Brassicales (Brassicaceae), Malvales (Malvaceae). 12 to 13. Lamiid, campanulid and asterid lineages of core eudicots; evolutionary trends, anatomy, morphology and ecology of representatives of selected orders and selected families : Ericales (Primulaceae, Ericaceae), Solanales (Boraginaceae, Solanaceae), Gentianales (Rubiaceae), Lamiales (Orobanchaceae, Plantaginaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Lamiaceae) Apiales (Apiaceae), Dipsacales (Caprifoliaceae, Adoxaceae) Asterales (Asteraceae).
Literature
  • HEYWOOD, V. H. Flowering plants of the world. 2 (reprint). London: B T Batsford, 1996. 335 pp. ISBN 0 7134 7422 X. info
  • SMEJKAL, Miroslav. Systém a evoluce vyšších rostlin. In Fylogeneze, systém a biologie organismů. 1. vyd. Praha: Státní pedagogické nakladatelství, 1992. p. 205-349. ISBN 80-04-22815-1. info
  • ŠTYS, Pavel. Zákonitosti evoluce organismů. In Fylogeneze, systém a biologie organismů. 1. vyd. Praha: Státní pedagogické nakladatelství, 1992. p. 643-689. ISBN 80-04-22815-1. info
  • HENDRYCH, Radovan. Systém a evoluce vyšších rostlin : učební přehled [Hendrych, 1986]. 2. upr. vyd. Praha: Státní pedagogické nakladatelství, 1986. 499 s. info
Teaching methods
lecture
Assessment methods
lecture, test of plant determination, written test or oral exam
Language of instruction
Czech
Further comments (probably available only in Czech)
Study Materials
Information on completion of the course: Podmínkou připuštění ke zkoušce je udělení zápočtu ze cvičení Bi2030c.
The course is taught annually.
Listed among pre-requisites of other courses

Zobrazit další předměty

The course is also listed under the following terms Spring 2008 - for the purpose of the accreditation, Spring 2011 - only for the accreditation, Spring 2003, Spring 2004, Spring 2005, Spring 2006, Spring 2007, Spring 2008, Spring 2009, Spring 2010, Spring 2011, Spring 2012, spring 2012 - acreditation, Spring 2013, Spring 2014, Spring 2015, Spring 2016, Spring 2017, spring 2018.
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