aZLFA0722c Farmakologie II - cvičení

Lékařská fakulta
podzim 2021
Rozsah
0/2/0. 30. 1 kr. Ukončení: z.
Vyučováno prezenčně.
Vyučující
doc. MUDr. Regina Demlová, Ph.D. (přednášející)
doc. PharmDr. Jan Juřica, Ph.D. (cvičící)
Mgr. Petra Amchová, Ph.D. (cvičící)
doc. RNDr. Ladislava Bartošová, Ph.D. (cvičící)
Mgr. Jana Kubátová, Ph.D. (cvičící)
doc. Mgr. MVDr. Leoš Landa, Ph.D. (cvičící)
Mgr. Kristýna Nosková, Ph.D. (cvičící)
MUDr. Jana Nováková, Ph.D. (cvičící)
MUDr. Jana Pistovčáková, Ph.D. (cvičící)
doc. PharmDr. Jana Rudá, Ph.D. (cvičící)
PharmDr. Jitka Rychlíčková, Ph.D. (cvičící)
Mgr. Barbora Říhová, Ph.D. (cvičící)
PharmDr. Lenka Součková, Ph.D. (cvičící)
Renata Bláblová (pomocník)
Květoslava Sedlářová (pomocník)
Garance
doc. MUDr. Regina Demlová, Ph.D.
Farmakologický ústav - Teoretická pracoviště - Lékařská fakulta
Kontaktní osoba: doc. Mgr. MVDr. Leoš Landa, Ph.D.
Dodavatelské pracoviště: Farmakologický ústav - Teoretická pracoviště - Lékařská fakulta
Rozvrh
Po 15. 11. 9:00–11:30 A19/229, Út 16. 11. 9:00–11:30 A19/229, Čt 18. 11. 9:00–11:30 A19/229, Pá 19. 11. 9:00–11:30 A19/229, Po 22. 11. 9:00–11:30 A19/229, Út 23. 11. 9:00–11:30 A19/229, St 24. 11. 9:00–11:30 A19/229, Čt 25. 11. 9:00–11:30 A19/229, Pá 26. 11. 9:00–11:30 A19/229
Předpoklady
aZLFA0621c Farmakologie I - cvičení && aZLPA0622c Patologie II - cvičení && aZLPF0622c Patol. fyziologie II -cvičení && aZLOR0641c Ortodoncie I - cvičení && aZLPD0631c Parodontologie I - cvičení
Omezení zápisu do předmětu
Předmět je určen pouze studentům mateřských oborů.
Mateřské obory/plány
Cíle předmětu
At the end of the course students will know pharmacological characteristics of analgesics, anti-inflammatory drugs, anticancer drugs, local and general anesthetics, psychotropics and antihypertensive agents, anticoagulants and thrombolytics, antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal agents. Students will be able to prescribe ready made preparations.
Výstupy z učení
Students will know the principles of drug prescription. They will be familiar with pharmacological profiles of therapeutic and adverse effects of particular drugs with an attention paid to drugs used in dentistry.
Osnova
  • 1/ OPIOID ANALGESICS
  • Analgesics of morphine type. Pharmacotherapy of pain.
  • Prescription of narcotic and psychotropic agents - revision. Special prescription and practical use of analgesic preparations.
  • 2/ NON-OPIOID ANALGESICS, NON-STEROIDAL ANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS
  • Classification, modes of action, topically applied antiinflammatory drugs. Special prescription of antiinflammatory drugs and antipyretics.
  • 3/ SPASMOLYTIC DRUGS, ANTIEPILEPTIC (ANTICONVULSANT) DRUGS
  • 4/ LOCAL AND GENERAL ANAESTHETICS
  • Overview, classification and mechanisms of action, side effects.
  • Special prescription of local anaesthetics.
  • 5/ ANTICANCER DRUGS
  • Overview, classification and mechanisms of action of anticancer drugs.
  • 6/ ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS
  • Basic classification, mechanisms of action.
  • 7/ DRUGS USED IN DISORDERS OF BLOOD CLOTTING-ANTICOAGULANTS AND THROMBOLYTICS
  • Classification of drugs affecting haemostasis, mechanisms of action, side effects, overview of drugs.
  • Prescription of individually prepared and ready made preparations – practice.
  • 8/ ANTIVIRAL AGENTS
  • Basic classification, mechanisms of action.
  • Special prescription of individually prepared and ready made preparations.
  • 9/ FINAL PRESCRIPTION TEST, REVIEW OF DRUGS WITH LOCAL ACTION USED IN DENTISTRY (repetition from the spring semester) + SELECTED CASE REPORTS ON DRUGS FROM PREVIOUS LESSONS
  • Working on PC: Solving case reports.
  • 10/ FINAL (CREDIT) TEST OF SPECIAL PHARMACOLOGY (groups of drugs from lessons 1 – 8) SELECTED CASE REPORTS ON DRUGS FROM PREVIOUS LESSONS, CREDITS
  • Working on PC: Solving case reports.
Literatura
    povinná literatura
  • RANG, H. P., James RITTER, R. J. FLOWER a Graeme HENDERSON. Rang & Dale's pharmacology. Eighth edition. [Edinburgh]: Churchill Livingstone, 2016. xv, 760. ISBN 9780702053627. info
    doporučená literatura
  • Practicals in Pharmacology http://portal.med.muni.cz/discipline-13-pharmacology
  • WHALEN, Karen. Pharmacology. Edited by Richard Finkel - Thomas A. Panavelil. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2015. xi, 664. ISBN 9781451191776. info
    neurčeno
  • Pharmaceutical Practice. Winfield, A.J. & Richards, R.M.E., eds. Churchill Livingstone. , 3rd Ed. 2004. ISBN 0443 07206 X
  • Ritter, James M. - Lewis, Lionel D. - Mant, Timothy G.K. - Ferro, Albert. A Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 5th Ed., Hodder Arnold, 2008. 465 s. ISBN 978-0-340-90046-8
Záložky
https://is.muni.cz/ln/tag/LF:aZLFA0722c!
Výukové metody
Drug classes specifics from the Syllabus are read firstly by the teacher and presented in video-programmes if available followed by discussion and training of drug prescription with the use of drug compendia. Approaches to "pharmacotherapeutical decisions" are practiced using the special PC programmes. Reports of students on a specific pharmacological topic followed by discussion are also included.
Metody hodnocení
The participation in practicals is obligatory and registered. To get credits a student has to pass 2 written tests: a) test on special drug presription (assessed individually by the teacher), b) multiple-choice test on knowledge of topics taught, which usually consists of 15 questions. Each question offers one or more correct options. Criterion for successful passing the test is defined as more than half correctly answered questions.
Vyučovací jazyk
Angličtina
Informace učitele
Information for students:

In the Final Exam students are asked to pass the ROPOT test. In the oral part of the exam students are asked to answer three randomly chosen questions dealing with the topics listed in synopses: Pharmacology I Lectures, Pharmacology I Practicals, Pharmacology II Lectures, Pharmacology II Practicals.


EXAMPLES OF QUESTIONS DEALING WITH DRUG PRESCRIPTION:

Prescribe:
Narrow-spectrum penicillin (ready-made)
Prescribe:
Aminoglycoside preparation (ready-made)

Prescribe:
Oral analgesic preparation containing paracetamol (ready-made)

Prescribe:
Spasmolytic drug (ready-made)

Prescribe:
Non-barbiturate hypnotic drug (ready-made)

Prescribe:
Drug for treatment of hypertension (ready-made)

Prescribe:
Antirheumatic agent (ready-made)

Prescribe:
Antiemetic drug (ready-made)

Prescribe: Antitussive agent (ready-made)

Prescribe:
Ointment with corticosteroid (ready-made)

Prescribe:
Chemotherapeutic preparation against urinary infections (ready-made)

Prescribe:
Ointment with corticosteroid (ready-made)


Anti-inflammatory oral preparation (ready-made)

Prescribe:
Proton pump inhibitor for treatment of peptic ulcer disease(ready-made)

Prescribe: Non-salicylate antipyretic preparation (ready-made)

Prescribe:
Short-acting benzodiazepine hypnotic (ready-made)

Prescribe:
Antibiotic ointment (ready-made)

Prescribe:
Cardiac glycoside in injections (ready-made)

EXAMPLES OF QUESTIONS ON GENERAL PHARMACOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES:

Routes of administration - overview, characteristics
Basic pharmacokinetic parameters and processes (overview)
Drug absorption, "first pass" effect
Biovailability of drugs
Drug distribution, volume of distribution
Drug elimination
Drug biotransformation, phases of biotransformation
Effect of environment pH and pKa of drugs on the drug transfer across biological membranes
Enzyme inhibition and induction
Drug excretion
Pharmacokinetics of single, repeated and continous drug administration
Pharmacokinetics of drug oral and parenteral administration
Drug dosage forms - overview and influence on pharmacokinetics
Therapeutic drug monitoring
Dose and effect, types of doses
Pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenetic polymorphism
Mechanisms of drug action - overview, non specific mechanisms of drug action
Specific mechanisms of drug action - the target structures, on which the drug act
Adverse drug reactions (types, categories)
Drug receptors theory - types of receptors
Tolerance, tachyphylaxis
Drug addiction
Therapeutic index, therapeutic range
Influence of concomitant diseases on drug effect, polypragmasia
Drug allergy (hypersensitivity), idiosyncrasy
Drug interactions- overview, pharmacokinetic interactions
Drug interactions- overview, pharmacodynamic interactions
Factors influencing the drug effect (related to drug, related to organism)
Pharmacoterapy in pregnancy, drug teratogenicity
Pharmacotherapy in breastfeeding women, in pediatric population
Pharmacoterapy in elderly
Pharmacology, sub-branches, origin of drugs, drug names
Pharmacopoeia
Rational pharmacotherapy, drug anamnesis, compliance
Development of a new drug (Drug life cycle)
Preclinical and clinical evaluation of drugs
Pharmacovigilance
General principles of drug poisoning therapy, specific antidotes and their mechanisms of action
Principles of biological therapy - technology, requirements on the quality, registration, biosimilars



EXAMPLES OF QUESTIONS ON "DRUG CLASSES":

Antimycotics
Antivirotics
Drugs with the topic action used in stomatology - overview
Antiinfective drugs used in stomatology
Disinfectants and antiseptics
Drugs with the topic action - dermatologics, drugs used in ORL
Principles of antibiotic therapy - overview, mechanisms of action, resistance
Antibiotics for topic use
Penicillines
Cephalosporins and other beta-lactams
Aminoglycosides
Macrolides
Sulphonamides
Tetracyclines
Quinolones and nitroimidazoles
Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs + Analgesics - antipyretics
Drugs used in gout
General anaesthetics
Premedications and supplement general anaesthesia, analgosedation, neuroleptanalgesia
Central and peripheral myorelaxants
Ester-type local anaesthetics
Amide-type local anaesthetics
Types and techniques of local anaesthesia
Pharmacoterapy of anaphylactic shock
Antitussives, expectorants
Hypolipidemics, lipid-lowering drugs
Drugs used in heart failure
Histamine H1-blockers
Antiasthmatics
Antihypertensives - overview + ACE inhibitors, sartans, renine antagonists
Antihypertensives - overview + diuretics, alpha1-lytics
Antihypertensives - overview + beta-blockers, central antihypertensives
Antiulcer drugs
Laxatives, antidiarrhoics
Antiemetics, prokinetics
Spasmolytics, digestives
Vitamins AEDK
Hydrophilic vitamins
Psychopharmacs - overview, classification
Hypnosedatives
Antiepileptic drugs
Antipsychotics
Anxiolytics
Antidepressants
Nootropics, drugs affecting cognitive functions
Psychostimulants, hallucinogenic and delirogenic drugs
Antidysrhytmics
Cardiotonics, inotropic drugs
Alkylating cytostatics and other impacts of DNA
Antimetabolites + hormonal therapy in oncology
Bilogical treatment in oncology
Glucocorticoids
Thyroid + anti-thyroid drugs
Drugs used in osteoporosis
Sex hormones - HRT, contraceptives
Uterotonics, tocolytics
Insulins
Antidiabetics for the treatment of type 2 DM
Anticoagulants, antiplatelet drugs
Antithrombotics, trombolytics
Opioid analgesics
Drugs causing addiction and pharmacological possibilities of addiction treatment
Drugs affecting ANS - neurotransmission, receptors of ANS, basic overview
Sympathomimetic agents - basic effects and classification - direct sympathomimetics
Sympathomimetic agents - basic effects and classification - indirect sympathomimetics
Sympatholytic agents - basic effects and classification - direct sympatholytics
Sympatholytic agents - basic effects and classification - indirect sympatholytics
Cholinomimetic agents - basic effects and classification - direct cholinomimetics
Cholinomimetic agents - basic effects and classification - indirect cholinomimetics
Cholinolytic agents - basic effects and classification - direct cholinolytics (parasympatholytics, ganglioplegics)


LIST OF GENERIC NAMES –„ESSENTIAL DRUGS“:
pantoprazole
famotidine
atropine
butylscopolamine
fenpiverine, pitofenone
metoclopramide
ondansetron
lactulose
insulin lispro
metformin
glibenclamide
warfarin
enoxaparin
acetylsalicylic acid
digoxin
propafenone
amiodarone
epinephrine
norepinephrine
dopamine
ephedrine, pseudoephedrine
nitroglycerin
methyldopa
clonidine
urapidil
hydrochlorothiazide
furosemide
metoprolol
labetalol
nifedipine
verapamil
enalapril
losartan
atorvastatin
ezetimibe
nystatin
ketoconazole
methylergometrine
hexoprenaline
alfuzosin
oxytocin
dexamethasone
prednisone
doxycycline, chloramphenicol
amoxicillin
phenoxymethylpenicillin
oxacillin
piperacillin, co-piperacillin
cefuroxime
cotrimoxazole
clarithromycin
gentamicin
ciprofloxacin
fluconazole
aciclovir
zidovudine
cyclophosphamide
methotrexate
6-mercaptopurine
5-fluorouracil
paclitaxel
doxorubicin
cisplatin
trastuzumab
tamoxifen
interferon alpha
ibuprofen
diclofenac
indomethacin
nimesulide
suxamethonium
allopurinol
alendronic acid
lidocaine
procaine
trimecaine
articaine
sevoflurane
thiopental
propofol
dihydrocodeine
sufentanil
piritramide
tramadol
paracetamol (acetaminophen)
metamizole
sumatriptan
valproic acid
gabapentin
haloperidol
risperidone
olanzapine
lithium
diazepam
alprazolam
zolpidem
midazolam
escitalopram
amitriptyline
bupropion
methylphenidate
donepezil
physostigmine
methadone
buprenorphine
betahistine
oxymetazoline, xylometazoline
phenylephrine
salbutamol
fenoterol
ipratropium bromide
nedocromil
acetylcysteine
bromhexine
codeine
butamirate
bisulepine
cetirizine
desloratadine
pilocarpine
timolol
tropicamide
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